Featured Posts (135)

I came across an interesting site about how you no longer need an office to operate your business. Click the link below and let me know what you think.

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That is exactly what Linda Lightman, a 53-year-old eBay expert has done by turning her luxury consignment store, Linda’s Stuff, into a $25 million a year business.

Lightman, a mother of two living in the suburbs of Philadelphia, PA, first got her start selling her son’s video games on eBay 15 years ago.  She told Daily Mail Online:lindalightmanfubu

“Most people don’t know that the average household has over 52 items worth over $3,000 just lying around their house ready to sell.”

“But you don’t have to be limited by what is in your home. Branch out. You can make money selling other items on eBay,” she added.

Lightman, a former labor and employment attorney in New York, says that her real venture into eBay started when she ran out of video games to sell so she started selling her own clothes, shoes and accessories.

“I was always so passionate about fashion and for me it was a no brainer,” she explained.

“Within weeks, my friends asked me to sell their clothes and so on. Word of mouth is a very powerful marketing tool and it spread quickly. I instantly knew I was on to something.”

In 2006, she was able to move Linda’s Stuff into a 5,000 square foot office that she is still in today, with her company thriving turning over an impressive $25 million every year.

Linda is living proof that money is there for the taking online if you learn what makes a good sell and points out that a pair of shoes is sold on eBay every two seconds in the US and a cellphone is sold every four seconds.

Linda Lightman has shared her top tips for becoming a top seller on eBay:

1.  Do your research

Make sure to educate yourself on the market and make sure that there is even a market for what you are selling.  It is also very important to research what similar items are selling for.

2.  Pick a great user ID

This is something that Lightman actually wishes she did a better job of!

3.  Use quality images and detailed descriptions

“It’s all about the picture. Remember the potential buyer cannot see or touch the item so he or she is relying on your image. Quality is key,” Linda noted. “You don’t have to be a professional photographer – I certainly was not when I started out. But you do want a crisp, sharp image.”

Lightman also says to make sure that you have a lot of pictures and put a great title.  Be sure to “include the designer name, size, color, style and other identifiers that buyers would search for.”

4.  Customer service is key

Clearly state the terms of payment, shipping and returns and be prepared to answer questions from potential buyers.

5.  Be prompt and reliable

“Once the buyer has paid for the item, be prepared to pack and ship it quickly and in the manner agreed upon in your listing,” she said, advising that sellers should “pack the item nicely.”

6.  Have fun

Love what you do and be creative.lindalightmanwithstuff

“Also, remember eBay makes selling on your smartphone incredibly simple, so get selling,” she added.

There are 25 million eBay sellers around the globe and has made more than $660 billion in sales in the 21st century.

So what are you selling?

 

source:  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3221228/How-fortune-home-Woman-makes-25-MILLION-year-eBay-reveals-tips-earning-cash-online-says-people-3-000-worth-items-just-lying-around.html

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Out of over 100,000 Licensed Architects in the U.S Only 300 are Black American Females...........This may be at the roots of numerous past and present systematic urban injustice, says Architect Toni L Griffin.   

Planner Toni L. Griffin speaks on urban justice August 24, 2015 at the Chautauqua Institution, Week 9: Creating Livable Communities. 


The “just city” is a process, explains Griffin, who also serves as a professor and director at the J. Max Bond Center on Design for the Just City at the City College of New York’s Spitzer School of Architecture.

In this Video presentation she highlights how the system can be broken down into 10 key elements: equity, choice, access, connectivity, diversity, ownership, inclusion and belonging, participation, beauty and creative innovation.

Please feel free to leave comments below.......thanks

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The Palisades Center was built around the Mount Moor Cemetery, a 150-year-old cemetery for African Americans established in 1849 whose stated purpose was to provide a final resting place for people of color, including Native American and African American veterans of American wars from the Civil War to the Korean War. The cemetery is visible from a number of points in the mall, and was undisturbed by construction.[10]

WestNyackNY MountMoorCemetery 01.jpg

"WestNyackNY MountMoorCemetery 01" by User:Magicpiano - Own work. Licensed under GFDL via Commons.

The Historical Society of Rockland County placed a historical sign which reads:

This burying ground for Colored people, was deeded on July 7, 1849 by James Benson. and Jane Benson. his wife to William H. Moore, Stephen Samuels and Isaac Williams. trustees. The cemetery has provided burial space for colored people, including veterans of the American Civil War, the Spanish American WarWorld Wars l and ll and the Korean War. The grounds have been maintained since 1940 by the Mount Moor Cemetery Association, Inc.[11]

The construction of the mall faced a number of environmental obstacles before it began. What was initially thought to be a mastodonburied there turned out to be a circus elephant. Nesting grounds for a nearly extinct red-legged partridge turned out to be a domesticated pheasant. Other problems included flooding from one of the region's glacier-dug bottom spots and runoff from three landfills on the property.[5]

The Pyramid Companies, also known as Pyramid Management Group, were formed in 1970 in Syracuse, New York by Robert J. Congel. The first three malls the company had built were Pyramid Mall Johnstown in Johnstown, New York,[1] Pyramid Mall Fulton inFulton, New York,[2] and Pyramid Mall Oneonta in Oneonta, New York.[3] All three malls opened in 1972. Each mall featured a White-Modell's department store and Loblaws supermarket as anchors. These malls were much smaller, community-type centers compared to the company's current malls.

The next three malls built by Pyramid, regarded as the company's "pioneer malls", were Pyramid Mall Ithaca (later The Shops at Ithaca Mall) in Lansing, New York, Pyramid Mall Plattsburgh (later Champlain Centre South) in Plattsburgh, New York, and Pyramid Mall Saratoga (later Saratoga Mall) in Saratoga Springs, New York. All three malls opened in 1975 and marked the beginning of an advance in shopping center construction and ownership. Of these three malls, the Plattsburgh and Saratoga properties were demolished for strip centers, but the Ithaca property still continues to operate as an enclosed mall.

Currently, Pyramid is the largest privately owned developer of shopping malls in the country. The company has since grown to own 17 properties throughout New YorkMassachusetts and Virginia.

Pyramid developed, and currently manages, four out of the 20 most visited shopping malls in America - Destiny USA in Syracuse, New YorkPalisades Center in West Nyack, New YorkWalden Galleria in Buffalo, New York, and Crossgates Mall in Albany, New York.

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You can evaluate the quality of InstaForex services by opening a live trading account.

If you are new to Forex trading, you can start with a demo account to get to know the advantages of currency trading with InstaForex

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Our advantages are trading terms that we offer to our clients.

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InstaForex together with MasterCard offers its clients a prepaid bank card. Using this bank card makes depositing and withdrawing funds from your trading account much easier. Thus, you can receive the money you have earned directly to the card within 24 hours. Another advantage of this service is the opportunity to replenish your trading account without paying extra commission. InstaForex MasterCard establishes direct connection between your trading account and cash.

Webinars by InstaForex

InstaForex always strives to give its clients the widest range of opportunities. Now the international broker has developed a special educational project webinars. Every our client can raise the level of professionalism being at any point of the world and not leaving his or her home. Interactive webinars are not less useful than regular seminars and organized with the help of the most up-to-date software. Webinars by InstaForex save you a bunch of time.

Forex options

InstaForex aims to deliver the latest trading technologies on Forex as well as high-quality services to its customers. Among such valuable advantages, there are such trading instruments as intraday binary options and expiry binary options. Options trading is available not only on live accounts but also on demo accounts. InstaForex makes options easier to access.

InstaForex futures

Futures are another ample opportunity to get a bigger profit. The most actively traded commodities on the market are crude oil, gasoline, gold, metals, etc. The futures market has a special meaning for many traders due to its high liquidity you can make profit in the shortest time. InstaForex offers its clients to trade many different futures contracts.

Fixed spreads

InstaForex customers are always sure that spreads (a charge by a broker for one executed deal) on all trading instruments except currencies will not change. InstaForex set a fixed spread for all its clients that allows traders to be more confident on Forex.

PAMM system

The PAMM accounts by InstaForex give you new opportunities for trading on Forex. The system makes available collective investment in various projects. Users make a certain choice whether to invest their own money in someone else's account or accept an investment from another trader. There are two types of the PAMM accounts. The holders of the first one are clients who act as investors and another one is for customers who manage funds or managing traders. This service helps new comers find their feet and acquire hands-on experience.

InstaForex Club

InstaForex provides its clients with one more great advantage to become a member of the luxury InstaForex club. The membership gives you access to a set of privileges including extra deposit bonuses. In addition, there are always many contests held among the club members, for example, car raffles. Raise you status in InstaForex just send an application form to get a club card.

InstaForex TV

InstaForex TV is yet another special project of the international broker. It is full featured TV with a broad range of programs about economy and finance. The company's clients are always in the loop of the hottest news, numerous analytical reviews, interviews, and reports. All the latest and important trends of the forex market as well as milestone events of the financial world are broadcast on InstaForex TV channel. InstaForex makes it easier to keep abreast of the latest events.

Forex analytics

InstaForex offers all users a broad set of financial analytics such as various reviews, economic calendar, and financial news. Analytical articles are the best tool for efficient work on Forex. Reliable analytics allows you to have your finger on the pulse of the latest tendencies thus giving you the chance to gain professional knowledge to make your own forecasts.

InstaForex offices

InstaForex has a large chain of offices worldwide rising every year. As of now, the total number of offices is 260. The main office is in Kaliningrad, the Russian Federation.

Financial exhibitions

InstaForex is one of the organizers of events held by a very popular company in financial circles, ShowFx World. It is a milestone event with great opportunities not only for brokers but also for different software developers, investment companies, educational projects, and of course for traders from all over the globe. Expositions enable visitors to get acquainted with the most up-to-date solutions on the forex market, discuss current trends in the financial industry, get finance-oriented literature, and take part in prize draws.

Trading servers

Today, we can say confidently that InstaForex is one of the leading forex brokers in the world. Its client base is over 1 million people, and trading volume is rising every day. The company's team strives to provide smooth operation of all trading servers. Presently, the trading system of InstaForex consists of 9 servers. The company's clients may choose any of the servers they want work on.

Prime News

InstaForex offers users fresh and essential news from the world of economy and finance every day. The Prime News section contains plenty of useful information. It is not only the latest tendencies on the markets, movements of stock and currency prices, analytical forecasts, but also financial reports of corporations on core figures, indexes, large deals, mergers, investments, etc. InstaForex guarantees accuracy, regular updates, and significance of data from the Prime News section.

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Article 1 Indigenous peoples have the right to the full enjoyment, as a collective or as individuals, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights4 and international human rights law. Article 2 Indigenous peoples and individuals are free and equal to all other peoples and individuals and have the right to be free from any kind of discrimination, in the exercise of their rights, in particular that based on their indigenous origin or identity. Article 3 Indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. Article 4 Indigenous peoples, in exercising their right to self-determination, have the right to autonomy or self-government in matters relating to 4.Resolution 217 A (III). 5 their internal and local affairs, as well as ways and means for financing their autonomous functions. Article 5 Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining their right to participate fully, if they so choose, in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the State. Article 6 Every indigenous individual has the right to a nationality. Article 7 1. Indigenous individuals have the rights to life, physical and mental integrity, liberty and security of person. 2. Indigenous peoples have the collective right to live in freedom, peace and security as distinct peoples and shall not be subjected to any act of genocide or any other act of violence, including forcibly removing children of the group to another group. Article 8 1. Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right not to be subjected to forced assimilation or destruction of their culture. 2. States shall provide effective mechanisms for prevention of, and redress for: (a) Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving them of their integrity as distinct peoples, or of their cultural values or ethnic identities; (b) Any action which has the aim or effect of dispossessing them of their lands, territories or resources; (c) Any form of forced population transfer which has the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of their rights; (d) Any form of forced assimilation or integration; (e) Any form of propaganda designed to promote or incite racial or ethnic discrimination directed against them. 6 Article 9 Indigenous peoples and individuals have the right to belong to an indigenous community or nation, in accordance with the traditions and customs of the community or nation concerned. No discrimination of any kind may arise from the exercise of such a right. Article 10 Indigenous peoples shall not be forcibly removed from their lands or territories. No relocation shall take place without the free, prior and informed consent of the indigenous peoples concerned and after agreement on just and fair compensation and, where possible, with the option of return. Article 11 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to practise and revitalize their cultural traditions and customs. This includes the right to maintain, protect and develop the past, present and future manifestations of their cultures, such as archaeological and historical sites, artefacts, designs, ceremonies, technologies and visual and performing arts and literature. 2. States shall provide redress through effective mechanisms, which may include restitution, developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples, with respect to their cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs. Article 12 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to manifest, practise, develop and teach their spiritual and religious traditions, customs and ceremonies; the right to maintain, protect, and have access in privacy to their religious and cultural sites; the right to the use and control of their ceremonial objects; and the right to the repatriation of their human remains. 2. States shall seek to enable the access and/or repatriation of ceremonial objects and human remains in their possession through fair, transparent and effective mechanisms developed in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned. 7 Article 13 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for communities, places and persons. 2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that this right is protected and also to ensure that indigenous peoples can understand and be understood in political, legal and administrative proceedings, where necessary through the provision of interpretation or by other appropriate means. Article 14 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions providing education in their own languages, in a manner appropriate to their cultural methods of teaching and learning. 2. Indigenous individuals, particularly children, have the right to all levels and forms of education of the State without discrimination. 3. States shall, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, take effective measures, in order for indigenous individuals, particularly children, including those living outside their communities, to have access, when possible, to an education in their own culture and provided in their own language. Article 15 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the dignity and diversity of their cultures, traditions, histories and aspirations which shall be appropriately reflected in education and public information. 2. States shall take effective measures, in consultation and cooperation with the indigenous peoples concerned, to combat prejudice and eliminate discrimination and to promote tolerance, understanding and good relations among indigenous peoples and all other segments of society. Article 16 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to establish their own media in their own languages and to have access to all forms of non-indigenous media without discrimination. 8 2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that State-owned media duly reflect indigenous cultural diversity. States, without prejudice to ensuring full freedom of expression, should encourage privately owned media to adequately reflect indigenous cultural diversity. Article 17 1. Indigenous individuals and peoples have the right to enjoy fully all rights established under applicable international and domestic labour law. 2. States shall in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples take specific measures to protect indigenous children from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development, taking into account their special vulnerability and the importance of education for their empowerment. 3. Indigenous individuals have the right not to be subjected to any discriminatory conditions of labour and, inter alia, employment or salary. Article 18 Indigenous peoples have the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect their rights, through representatives chosen by themselves in accordance with their own procedures, as well as to maintain and develop their own indigenous decisionmaking institutions. Article 19 States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free, prior and informed consent before adopting and implementing legislative or administrative measures that may affect them. Article 20 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and develop their political, economic and social systems or institutions, to be secure in the enjoyment of their own means of subsistence and development, and to engage freely in all their traditional and other economic activities. 9 2. Indigenous peoples deprived of their means of subsistence and development are entitled to just and fair redress. Article 21 1. Indigenous peoples have the right, without discrimination, to the improvement of their economic and social conditions, including, inter alia, in the areas of education, employment, vocational training and retraining, housing, sanitation, health and social security. 2. States shall take effective measures and, where appropriate, special measures to ensure continuing improvement of their economic and social conditions. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities. Article 22 1. Particular attention shall be paid to the rights and special needs of indigenous elders, women, youth, children and persons with disabilities in the implementation of this Declaration. 2. States shall take measures, in conjunction with indigenous peoples, to ensure that indigenous women and children enjoy the full protection and guarantees against all forms of violence and discrimination. Article 23 Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for exercising their right to development. In particular, indigenous peoples have the right to be actively involved in developing and determining health, housing and other economic and social programmes affecting them and, as far as possible, to administer such programmes through their own institutions. Article 24 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to their traditional medicines and to maintain their health practices, including the conservation of their vital medicinal plants, animals and minerals. Indigenous individuals also have the right to access, without any discrimination, to all social and health services. 2. Indigenous individuals have an equal right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States shall take the necessary steps with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of this right. 10 Article 25 Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain and strengthen their distinctive spiritual relationship with their traditionally owned or otherwise occupied and used lands, territories, waters and coastal seas and other resources and to uphold their responsibilities to future generations in this regard. Article 26 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired. 2. Indigenous peoples have the right to own, use, develop and control the lands, territories and resources that they possess by reason of traditional ownership or other traditional occupation or use, as well as those which they have otherwise acquired. 3. States shall give legal recognition and protection to these lands, territories and resources. Such recognition shall be conducted with due respect to the customs, traditions and land tenure systems of the indigenous peoples concerned. Article 27 States shall establish and implement, in conjunction with indigenous peoples concerned, a fair, independent, impartial, open and transparent process, giving due recognition to indigenous peoples’ laws, traditions, customs and land tenure systems, to recognize and adjudicate the rights of indigenous peoples pertaining to their lands, territories and resources, including those which were traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used. Indigenous peoples shall have the right to participate in this process. Article 28 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to redress, by means that can include restitution or, when this is not possible, just, fair and equitable compensation, for the lands, territories and resources which they have traditionally owned or otherwise occupied or used, and which have been confiscated, taken, occupied, used or damaged without their free, prior and informed consent. 2. Unless otherwise freely agreed upon by the peoples concerned, compensation shall take the form of lands, territories and resources 11 equal in quality, size and legal status or of monetary compensation or other appropriate redress. Article 29 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the conservation and protection of the environment and the productive capacity of their lands or territories and resources. States shall establish and implement assistance programmes for indigenous peoples for such conservation and protection, without discrimination. 2. States shall take effective measures to ensure that no storage or disposal of hazardous materials shall take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples without their free, prior and informed consent. 3. States shall also take effective measures to ensure, as needed, that programmes for monitoring, maintaining and restoring the health of indigenous peoples, as developed and implemented by the peoples affected by such materials, are duly implemented. Article 30 1. Military activities shall not take place in the lands or territories of indigenous peoples, unless justified by a relevant public interest or otherwise freely agreed with or requested by the indigenous peoples concerned. 2. States shall undertake effective consultations with the indigenous peoples concerned, through appropriate procedures and in particular through their representative institutions, prior to using their lands or territories for military activities. Article 31 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions, as well as the manifestations of their sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts. They also have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their intellectual property over such cultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and traditional cultural expressions. 12 2. In conjunction with indigenous peoples, States shall take effective measures to recognize and protect the exercise of these rights. Article 32 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine and develop priorities and strategies for the development or use of their lands or territories and other resources. 2. States shall consult and cooperate in good faith with the indigenous peoples concerned through their own representative institutions in order to obtain their free and informed consent prior to the approval of any project affecting their lands or territories and other resources, particularly in connection with the development, utilization or exploitation of mineral, water or other resources. 3. States shall provide effective mechanisms for just and fair redress for any such activities, and appropriate measures shall be taken to mitigate adverse environmental, economic, social, cultural or spiritual impact. Article 33 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine their own identity or membership in accordance with their customs and traditions. This does not impair the right of indigenous individuals to obtain citizenship of the States in which they live. 2. Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the structures and to select the membership of their institutions in accordance with their own procedures. Article 34 Indigenous peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality, traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases where they exist, juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human rights standards. Article 35 Indigenous peoples have the right to determine the responsibilities of individuals to their communities. 13 Article 36 1. Indigenous peoples, in particular those divided by international borders, have the right to maintain and develop contacts, relations and cooperation, including activities for spiritual, cultural, political, economic and social purposes, with their own members as well as other peoples across borders. 2. States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take effective measures to facilitate the exercise and ensure the implementation of this right. Article 37 1. Indigenous peoples have the right to the recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements concluded with States or their successors and to have States honour and respect such treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements. 2. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as diminishing or eliminating the rights of indigenous peoples contained in treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements. Article 38 States, in consultation and cooperation with indigenous peoples, shall take the appropriate measures, including legislative measures, to achieve the ends of this Declaration. Article 39 Indigenous peoples have the right to have access to financial and technical assistance from States and through international cooperation, for the enjoyment of the rights contained in this Declaration. Article 40 Indigenous peoples have the right to access to and prompt decision through just and fair procedures for the resolution of conflicts and disputes with States or other parties, as well as to effective remedies for all infringements of their individual and collective rights. Such a decision shall give due consideration to the customs, traditions, rules and legal systems of the indigenous peoples concerned and international human rights. 14 Article 41 The organs and specialized agencies of the United Nations system and other intergovernmental organizations shall contribute to the full realization of the provisions of this Declaration through the mobilization, inter alia, of financial cooperation and technical assistance. Ways and means of ensuring participation of indigenous peoples on issues affecting them shall be established. Article 42 The United Nations, its bodies, including the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and specialized agencies, including at the country level, and States shall promote respect for and full application of the provisions of this Declaration and follow up the effectiveness of this Declaration. Article 43 The rights recognized herein constitute the minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of the indigenous peoples of the world. Article 44 All the rights and freedoms recognized herein are equally guaranteed to male and female indigenous individuals. Article 45 Nothing in this Declaration may be construed as diminishing or extinguishing the rights indigenous peoples have now or may acquire in the future. Article 46 1. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, people, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act contrary to the Charter of the United Nations or construed as authorizing or encouraging any action which would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States. 2. In the exercise of the rights enunciated in the present Declaration, human rights and fundamental freedoms of all shall be respected. The exercise of the rights set forth in this Declaration shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law 15 and in accordance with international human rights obligations. Any such limitations shall be non-discriminatory and strictly necessary solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the just and most compelling requirements of a democratic society. 3. The provisions set forth in this Declaration shall be interpreted in accordance with the principles of justice, democracy, respect for human rights, equality, non-discrimination, good governance and good faith.

Announcement of U.S. Support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Initiatives to Promote the Government-to-Government Relationship & Improve the Lives of Indigenous Peoples

In his Presidential Proclamation last month honoring National Native American Heritage Month, President Obama recommitted ―to supporting tribal self-determination, security and prosperity for all Native Americans.‖ He recognized that ―[w]hile we cannot erase the scourges or broken promises of our past, we will move ahead together in writing a new, brighter chapter in our joint history.‖ It is in this spirit that the United States today proudly lends its support to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Declaration). In September 2007, at the United Nations, 143 countries voted in favor of the Declaration. The United States did not. Today, in response to the many calls from Native Americans throughout this country and in order to further U.S. policy on indigenous issues, President Obama announced that the United States has changed its position. The United States supports the Declaration, which—while not legally binding or a statement of current international law—has both moral and political force. It expresses both the aspirations of indigenous peoples around the world and those of States in seeking to improve their relations with indigenous peoples. Most importantly, it expresses aspirations of the United States, aspirations that this country seeks to achieve within the structure of the U.S. Constitution, laws, and international obligations, while also seeking, where appropriate, to improve our laws and policies. U.S. support for the Declaration goes hand in hand with the U.S. commitment to address the consequences of a history in which, as President Obama recognized, ―few have been more marginalized and ignored by Washington for as long as Native Americans—our First Americans.‖ That commitment is reflected in the many policies and programs that are being implemented by U.S. agencies in response to concerns raised by Native Americans, including poverty, unemployment, environmental degradation, health care gaps, violent crime, and discrimination. II. The Review of the U.S. Position on the Declaration The decision to review the U.S. position on the Declaration came in response to calls from many tribes, individual Native Americans, civil society, and others in the United States, who believed that U.S. support for the Declaration would make an important contribution to U.S. policy and practice with respect to Native American issues. The decision by the United States to support the Declaration was the result of a thorough review of the Declaration by the relevant federal agencies. 2 In conducting its review of the Declaration, U.S. agencies consulted extensively with tribal leaders during three rounds of consultations, one in Rapid City, South Dakota, and two in Washington, D.C. In addition, the agencies conducted outreach to indigenous organizations, civil society, and other interested individuals. Tribal leaders and others contributed to the review through their attendance at the consultation and outreach sessions, participation in those sessions by means of conference calls, and written submissions. In total, over 3,000 written comments were received and reviewed. Tribes, groups, and individuals who participated in the review of the U.S. position on the Declaration presented a wide range of views on the meaning and importance of the Declaration. While they could not all be directly reflected in the U.S. position on the Declaration, they were all considered in the process. III. The Declaration and U.S. Initiatives on Native American Issues The United States is home to over two million Native Americans, 565 federally recognized Indian tribes, and other indigenous communities. U.S. support for the Declaration reflects the U.S. commitment to work with those tribes, individuals, and communities to address the many challenges they face. The United States aspires to improve relations with indigenous peoples by looking to the principles embodied in the Declaration in its dealings with federally recognized tribes, while also working, as appropriate, with all indigenous individuals and communities in the United States. Moreover, the United States is committed to serving as a model in the international community in promoting and protecting the collective rights of indigenous peoples as well as the human rights of all individuals. The United States underlines its support for the Declaration’s recognition in the preamble that indigenous individuals are entitled without discrimination to all human rights recognized in international law, and that indigenous peoples possess certain additional, collective rights. The United States reads all of the provisions of the Declaration in light of this understanding of human rights and collective rights. U.S. agencies are currently engaged in numerous initiatives to address the concerns raised by Native American leaders and issues addressed in the Declaration. Many involve the continuation of activities highlighted in the White House Tribal Nations Conference Progress Report released in June 2010. Additional efforts to strengthen the government-to-government relationship, protect lands and the environment and provide redress, address health care gaps, promote sustainable economic development, and protect Native American cultures are addressed below. III. 1 Strengthening the Government-to-Government Relationship As President Obama noted: ―Washington can’t – and shouldn’t – dictate a policy agenda for Indian Country. Tribal nations do better when they make their own decisions.‖ The record over the forty years since the United States adopted its policy of greater tribal autonomy is clear 3 – tribal self-determination has enabled tribal governments to establish, develop, and enhance tribal institutions and infrastructure ranging from those addressing the health, education, and welfare of their communities to those such as tribal courts, fire protection, and law enforcement. The clear lesson is that empowering tribes to deal with the challenges they face and that taking advantage of the available opportunities will result in tribal communities that thrive. The United States is therefore pleased to support the Declaration’s call to promote the development of a new and distinct international concept of self-determination specific to indigenous peoples. The Declaration’s call is to promote the development of a concept of selfdetermination for indigenous peoples that is different from the existing right of selfdetermination in international law. The purpose of the Declaration was not to change or define the existing right of self-determination under international law. Further, as explained in Article 46, the Declaration does not imply any right to take any action that would dismember or impair, totally or in part, the territorial integrity or political unity of sovereign and independent States. For the United States, the Declaration’s concept of self-determination is consistent with the United States’ existing recognition of, and relationship with, federally recognized tribes as political entities that have inherent sovereign powers of self-governance. This recognition is the basis for the special legal and political relationship, including the government-to-government relationship, established between the United States and federally recognized tribes, pursuant to which the United States supports, protects, and promotes tribal governmental authority over a broad range of internal and territorial affairs, including membership, culture, language, religion, education, information, social welfare, community and public safety, family relations, economic activities, lands and resource management, environment and entry by non-members, as well as ways and means for financing these autonomous governmental functions. Federal agencies are engaged in a wide range of activities to enhance tribal selfdetermination in areas crucial to the well-being of tribal members. The Department of Justice (DOJ), for example, is deeply committed to strengthening tribal police and judicial systems. Accordingly, the President’s FY 2011 Budget Request provides $321 million to DOJ for tribal public safety initiatives, an increase of 42% over FY 2010. This includes $255.6 million for grants to Indian tribes for tribal law enforcement efforts. The FY 2011 Budget Request also sustains FY 2010 appropriations increases of over 21% for Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded public safety and law enforcement efforts and includes an additional $19 million to support 81 new FBI positions (45 agents) to investigate violent crimes in Indian Country. These increases build on over $250 million in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (Recovery Act) funds made available to tribes in FY 2009 to address criminal justice needs. In addition, on July 29, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Tribal Law and Order Act (TLOA). This comprehensive bill is aimed at improving public safety on tribal lands. The statute gives tribes greater authority to prosecute crimes and increases federal accountability for public safety in tribal communities. In conformity with the TLOA, the Attorney General established the Office of Tribal Justice as a separate component within the organizational structure of the Department of Justice. The Office has played, and will continue to play, a key role in DOJ’s ongoing initiative to improve public safety in Indian Country, and it serves as the 4 primary channel for tribes to communicate their concerns to the Department, helps coordinate policy on Indian affairs both within DOJ and with other federal agencies, and seeks to ensure that DOJ and its components work with tribes on a government-to-government basis. The Departments of the Interior, Justice, and Health and Human Services are engaged in an unprecedented effort to consult with tribes to develop policy and implement this new law. In response to tribal input, DOJ has also streamlined its grant-making process. The Coordinated Tribal Assistance Solicitation (CTAS) combines ten different grant programs into a single solicitation. In September 2010, hundreds of American Indian and Alaska Native communities received the first grants under CTAS – almost $127 million to enhance law enforcement, bolster justice systems, prevent youth substance abuse, serve sexual assault and elder abuse victims, and support other tribal efforts to combat crime. During consultation sessions conducted by the Department of Education with over 350 tribal leaders in 2010, those leaders stressed the importance of greater tribal control over the education of Indian students. The Administration agrees. Therefore, the Department of Education has proposed changes to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) to enhance the role of tribes in Indian education and allow greater flexibility in the use of federal education funds to meet the unique needs of Native American students. Sixteen different tribes, from Maine to Alaska, participated this summer in the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs Water Training Program. The Training Program is taught by instructors from several Department of the Interior bureaus. The program strengthens tribal governments and prepares them to manage their own natural resources with qualified tribal government employees who have the necessary expertise to help alleviate the shortage of technical expertise on Indian reservations. Other agency programs that enhance tribal self-determination are discussed in subsequent sections. In addition to enhancing the self-determination of federally recognized tribes, the Obama Administration has supported the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act, which provides a process for forming a Native Hawaiian governing entity that would be recognized by, and have a government-to-government relationship with, the United States. Congress has also enacted many more narrowly focused statutes for Native Hawaiians similar to those for other native people, such as the National Historic Preservation Act, which provides protections to properties with religious and cultural importance to Native American Indian tribes and Native Hawaiians; the Native Hawaiian Education Act, which establishes programs to facilitate the education of Native Hawaiians; the Native American Housing Assistance and SelfDetermination Act, which provides housing assistance in the form of grants and loans; and the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, which protects Native American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian gravesites. U.S. Government efforts to strengthen the government-to-government relationship with tribes cannot be limited to enhancing tribal self-determination. It is also crucial that U.S. agencies have the necessary input from tribal leaders before those agencies themselves take 5 actions that have a significant impact on the tribes. It is for this reason that President Obama signed the Presidential Memorandum on the implementation of Executive Order 13175, ―Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments,‖ and directed all federal agencies to develop detailed plans of action to implement the Executive Order. In this regard, the United States recognizes the significance of the Declaration’s provisions on free, prior and informed consent, which the United States understands to call for a process of meaningful consultation with tribal leaders, but not necessarily the agreement of those leaders, before the actions addressed in those consultations are taken. The United States intends to continue to consult and cooperate in good faith with federally recognized tribes and, as applicable, Native Hawaiians, on policies that directly and substantially affect them and to improve our cooperation and consultation processes, in accordance with federal law and President Obama’s call for better implementation of Executive Order 13175. The United States does so with the firm policy objective, where possible, of obtaining the agreement of those tribes consistent with our democratic system and laws. At the same time, the United States intends to improve our engagement with other indigenous individuals and groups. The United States will also continue to implement the many U.S. laws that require the agreement of federally recognized tribes or indigenous groups before certain actions can be taken or that require redress for takings of property. U.S. Government efforts in this area are numerous. Federal agencies have submitted the consultation plans required by the Presidential Memorandum and are currently implementing them. A number of agencies have created new offices to ensure proper implementation of their consultation policies. Examples are the Office of Tribal Government Relations in the Department of Veterans Affairs, which will be established in 2011, and the Office of Tribal Relations in the Department of Agriculture. Other agencies, like the Department of Energy, found it appropriate to establish a Tribal Steering Committee to analyze the agencies’ consultation practices. Similarly, the Department of Health and Human Services established a Secretary-level Tribal Advisory Committee to create a coordinated, department-wide strategy to improve consultations with Indian tribes. In addition, some agencies have experimented with ―webinars‖ and other online technology to permit tribal leaders to participate in consultations without incurring the costs and time commitments of in-person sessions. These innovations show the seriousness with which federal agencies are taking consultations. In addition, the Administration is continuing its multi-agency collaborations with tribal governments to develop comprehensive policy for Indian Country. Several agencies are working together on policy priorities and are coordinating on consultation sessions. For example, the Departments of the Interior and Education have been working closely to combine and coordinate their resources, and to maximize their efforts to impact Indian education. As part of the United States review of its position on the Declaration, fourteen federal agencies participated in tribal consultations, which included sessions held in Indian Country and at the State Department. Federal agencies have put their consultation plans to work over the past year in a wide variety of contexts, and the valuable input received from tribal leaders is reflected throughout U.S. policies and programs in Indian Country. 6 III. 2 Protection of Native American Lands and the Environment, and Redress The United States recognizes that some of the most grievous acts committed by the United States and many other States against indigenous peoples were with regard to their lands, territories, and natural resources. For this reason, the United States has taken many steps to ensure the protection of Native American lands and natural resources, and to provide redress where appropriate. It is also for this reason that the United States stresses the importance of the lands, territories, resources and redress provisions of the Declaration in calling on all States to recognize the rights of indigenous peoples to their lands, territories, and natural resources. Consistent with its understanding of the intention of the States that negotiated and adopted the Declaration, the United States understands these provisions to call for the existence of national laws and mechanisms for the full legal recognition of the lands, territories, and natural resources indigenous peoples currently possess by reason of traditional ownership, occupation, or use as well as those that they have otherwise acquired. The Declaration further calls upon States to recognize, as appropriate, additional interests of indigenous peoples in traditional lands, territories, and natural resources. Consistent with that understanding, the United States intends to continue to work so that the laws and mechanisms it has put in place to recognize existing, and accommodate the acquisition of additional, land, territory, and natural resource rights under U.S. law function properly and to facilitate, as appropriate, access by indigenous peoples to the traditional lands, territories and natural resources in which they have an interest. U.S. agency initiatives in this area are numerous. Perhaps most significantly, the Obama Administration has acquired over 34,000 acres of land in trust on behalf of Indian tribes, which is a 225 percent increase since 2006. Lands held in trust for tribes are used for housing, economic development, government services, cultural and natural resource protection, and other critical purposes. Recovering and protecting the tribes’ land base is a hallmark objective of this Administration. After the recent Supreme Court decision in Carcieri v. Salazar, Congress introduced, and the Administration has fully supported, legislation to reaffirm the authority of the United States to take land into trust on behalf of all federally recognized Indian tribes. In addition, the United States intervened in a federal suit, Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan and United States v. Granholm, and worked to facilitate a settlement that recognizes the tribe’s entire reservation to be Indian Country, resolving over a century of disputes over the boundaries and existence of the reservation. The court approved that settlement on November 23, 2010. This settlement, which involves the tribe, the United States, the State of Michigan, and local governments, will promote greater intergovernmental cooperation and provide the clarity necessary for effective law enforcement and civil regulation on the reservation. The United States has also sought to protect tribal lands, and tribal jurisdiction over those lands, in several other court cases, including the City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation, Cayuga Nation v. Gould, and Water Wheel v. LaRance. Other agency initiatives include the release by the Forest Service of $37.3 million in Recovery Act funds directly to tribes for wild land fire management and the improvement of 7 habitat and watersheds. Of the total Forest Service funding received under the Recovery Act, $213 million was provided to benefit tribes and tribal lands. The Obama Administration has also made extensive efforts to resolve longstanding Native American legal claims against the United States and private entities related to lands, natural resources, and other issues. In 2009, the United States reached an agreement for over $1.79 billion to address contamination at over 80 sites in 19 states pursuant to resolution of the American Smelting and Refining Company, LLC (ASARCO) bankruptcy. The settlement includes approximately $194 million for the recovery of wildlife, habitat, and other natural resources managed by the federal, state, and tribal governments at more than a dozen sites. The settlement is part of the largest environmental damage bankruptcy case in U.S. history, and resolves ASARCO’s environmental liabilities from mining and smelting operations that contaminated land, water, and wildlife resources on federal, state, tribal, and private land. In late October 2010, the Administration reached a $760 million settlement with Native American farmers and ranchers, in Keepseagle v. Vilsack, a case alleging discrimination by the Department of Agriculture in loan programs. Under the agreement, the Department of Agriculture will pay $680 million in damages and forgive $80 million of outstanding farm loan debt. The federal government also agreed to create a 15-member Native American Farmer and Rancher Council to advise the Department, appoint a Department ombudsman, provide more technical assistance to Native American borrowers, and conduct a systematic review of farm loan program rules. On December 9, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Claims Resolution Act, which includes the Cobell v. Salazar settlement agreement. In 1996, Elouise Cobell charged the Department of the Interior with failing to account for billions of dollars that it was supposed to collect on behalf of more than 300,000 individual Native Americans. After fourteen years of litigation, enactment of the Claims Resolution Act finally closes an unfortunate chapter in our history. The Act creates a fund of $1.5 billion dollars to address historic accounting and trust management issues, and it also allocates up to $1.9 billion dollars to convert some of the most highly fractionated individual Indian lands into land that can be managed for the broader benefit of the respective tribe. As part of the $1.9 billion, a trust fund of up to $60 million dollars is being created for a scholarship fund for Native Americans. In addition, this law includes an unprecedented package of four water settlements benefitting seven tribes in Arizona, Montana, and New Mexico. This law finally gives the Crow, White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the Pueblos of Taos, Tesuque, Nambe, Pojoaque, and San Ildefonso permanent access to secure water supplies year round. As noted by Secretary of the Interior Salazar, ―Congress’ approval of the Cobell settlement and the four Indian water rights settlements is nothing short of historic for Indian nations.‖ He explained that the settlements ―represent a major step forward in President Obama’s agenda to empower tribal governments, fulfill our trust responsibilities to tribal members and help tribal leaders build safer, stronger, healthier and more prosperous 8 communities.‖ They demonstrate not only that the United States has a well-developed court system that provides a means of redress for many wrongs suffered by U.S. citizens, residents and others – including federally recognized tribes and indigenous individuals and groups -- but also that redress is available from the U.S. Congress under appropriate circumstances. The United States will interpret the redress provisions of the Declaration to be consistent with the existing system for legal redress in the United States, while working to ensure that appropriate redress is in fact provided under U.S. law. The Administration is likewise committed to protecting the environment, and recognizes that many indigenous peoples depend upon a healthy environment for subsistence fishing, hunting and gathering. The Administration therefore acknowledges the importance of the provisions of the Declaration that address environmental issues. While there is far more that needs to be done, the United States is taking many steps to address environmental challenges in Indian Country and beyond. In July 2010, President Obama signed Executive Order 13547, Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the Great Lakes, drafted with substantial input from tribes, which established a Governance Coordination Committee with three tribal representatives, as well as tribal engagement in developing priority action areas. Of special interest are the priority areas of the Arctic and developing coastal and marine spatial plans. In 2010, the Department of the Interior (DOI) provided grants worth more than $7 million through the Tribal Wildlife Grants Program for 42 Native American tribes to fund a wide range of conservation projects in sixteen states. The Tribal Wildlife Grants program has provided more than $50 million in the past eight years for 400 conservation projects administered by 162 federally-recognized tribes. The grants provide technical and financial assistance for the development and implementation of projects that benefit fish and wildlife resources and their habitat, including non-game species. DOI has also engaged in numerous cooperative resource protection efforts with tribes, including a water quality and biologic condition assessments agreement with the Sac and Fox on the Iowa River, restoration of the Klamath River though possible dam removal and in partnership with the Klamath River Basin tribes, and assistance to the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission to assess the impact of land use and climate change on wetlands. Over the past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) awarded targeted grants to tribes for specific preventative tasks to address environmental degradation, including $150,000 to the Eight Northern Indian Pueblo Council to establish a Brownfields Tribal Response Program that will promote environmental health for several Pueblos and tribes in New Mexico and West Texas. Two additional grants were made for projects run by tribes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan as a part of President Obama’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, a $475 million program that represents the largest investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. The grants are to the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community to develop a sustainable hazardous waste collection program to serve tribal and non-tribal community members, and help prevent toxic contaminants from entering Lake Superior, and to the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa 9 to improve habitat and water quality in the Bear River Watershed, which directly affects waters flowing into Little Traverse Bay on Lake Michigan. The Department of Agriculture also invested $84.8 million dollars in water and environmental projects benefitting tribal communities in the lower 48 U.S. states during FY 2010 and an additional $66.2 million dollars for similar projects benefitting tribal communities in Alaska through the Rural Alaska Village Grants program. A further $120.8 million was invested in essential community facilities benefitting tribal communities. The Department of Energy (DOE) provides grants to many Indian communities to allow them to develop renewable energy resources and energy efficiency measures in their communities in ways that benefit not only those communities, but the whole planet, while serving as models for other U.S. communities. With DOE assistance, tribes are developing a wide-range of renewable energy resources and conservation measures, including geothermal, solar energy, wind and biomass technologies and comprehensive recycling programs. These programs reduce the carbon footprint of tribal communities, while creating jobs and reducing costs. DOE has also worked closely with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to clean up contamination from Cold War storage of hazardous waste at the Idaho National Laboratory, the tribes’ ancestral home. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have the technical capabilities and qualifications, funded by a DOE-Idaho Cooperative Agreement, to assist the Department and the regulators in reviewing the effectiveness of the cleanup work and assuring that the environment, and particularly the Snake River Plain Aquifer, are not contaminated or threatened. The Fisheries and the Northwest Protected Resources Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also consults formally and informally with the Northwest treaty tribes when considering the designation of critical habitat for endangered species, including salmon, to ensure the agency is informed of relevant tribal science and any potential impacts to the tribe that may arise from a designation of tribal lands as critical habitat. Documented information from these consultations with NOAA has ensured the protection of listed species and minimized any impact to tribal trust resources. Additionally, NOAA Fisheries and NOAA General Counsel for the Northwest consult with four tribes with ocean treaty fishing rights for groundfish in conjunction with the Pacific Fishery Management Council process. An example of the success of this practice is that, in 2010, NOAA Fisheries adopted a tribal whiting allocation that was agreed to by all affected tribes and the State of Washington. III. 3 Addressing Health Care Gaps The Obama Administration understands the priority tribal leaders place on improving the delivery of health care services in their communities, as well as the significance of related provisions in the Declaration. The Administration has responded, as evidenced by the 13% increase in funding for the Indian Health Service (IHS) in FY 2010 and the 9% additional increase for IHS proposed in the President’s FY 2011 Budget Request. These increases are on top of $500 million provided to the IHS under the Recovery Act. 10 After President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act into law in March, making permanent the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, IHS initiated consultations with tribal leaders to implement the Act and determine their priorities. Tribes identified long-term care, behavior health, and diabetes/dialysis as their primary concerns. IHS held a meeting on Long Term Care in Indian Country on November 1-2, 2010 to begin the conversation about implementation priorities with tribes. IHS is also continuing the Special Diabetes Program for Indians, a Congressionally-approved grant program now in its thirteenth year, which has resulted in increased control of diabetes in indigenous communities and decreasing rates of end stage renal disease. Related demonstration projects have also shown significant promise. Tribes also stressed the need to improve the collaboration and coordination of services for veterans eligible for both the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and IHS services. The IHS Director met with VA Secretary Shinseki in May 2010, and they agreed to update the 2003 VA-IHS MOU governing their agencies’ cooperation. The updated MOU was signed in October 2010 and a letter to tribal leaders initiating a consultation on the implementation of the MOU was released in November 2010. The Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of the Interior are working together to combat the problem of suicide in Indian Country. The two Departments launched a series of listening sessions between November 2010 and February 2011 to obtain the input of tribal leaders on how the agencies can effectively work within their communities to prevent suicide. The information gathered will inform a major Suicide Prevention Summit to be held in Spring 2011. III. 4 Promoting Sustainable Economic Development The Obama Administration has also taken numerous steps, consistent with the Declaration, to promote the economic wellbeing of indigenous peoples in the United States. A priority for the Administration has been to combat unemployment in Indian Country as evidenced by the President’s FY 2011 Budget Request, which includes $55 million, representing a 4% increase over FY 2010 funding, for the Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration’s Indian and Native American Program, which grants funding to tribes and Native American non-profits to provide employment and training services to unemployed and low-income Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. Additionally, the Recovery Act allocated over $17 million for the Native American Supplemental Youth Service Program to support summer employment and training opportunities for disconnected youths. In addition, this summer, the Department of Labor awarded approximately $53 million to 178 grantees to provide quality employment and training services specifically for Native American adults who are unemployed, underemployed and low-income individuals. It awarded an additional $13.8 million in grants to 78 tribes, tribal consortiums, and tribal non-profit organizations to offer summer employment and training activities for American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian youth between the ages of 14 and 21, residing on or near Indian 11 reservations or Alaska Native villages. The youth program targets high school dropouts and youth in need of basic skills training and provides an array of employment and training services, including job placement assistance, work experience, and occupational skills training. In addition, the Recovery Act included $17.8 million in grant funding for Native American youth activities, including summer employment and training opportunities. The Department of Labor has also been working to address the needs of Native Americans with disabilities. It has collaborated with tribal colleges and universities through the Workforce Recruitment Program to provide internship opportunities for students with federal employers. The Department, tribal colleges and universities, and the National Indian Health Board have worked together to develop a training curriculum for tribal members with disabilities that will provide the opportunity for them to become Community Health Aides. In addition, Add Us In, a new initiative sponsored by the Department, is designed to identify and develop strategies to increase employment opportunities within the small business community for individuals with disabilities. This initiative includes targeted Native American owned and operated small businesses. In addition, the Treasury Department has a program to strengthen the economic health of Native American communities generally. The Native American Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Assistance Program, or NACA Program, now includes 57 certified Native CDFIs. CDFIs are non-government financial entities whose primary mission is to promote community development, principally by serving and being accountable to a low-income community, and by providing development services. Native participation in NACA increased significantly in 2009 and 2010, and on April 30, 2010, the CDFI Fund announced awards totaling $10.3 million to be used for small business/venture capital, affordable housing, and consumer loans. Tribal leaders regularly identify the lack of adequate housing as a major impediment to economic development in their communities. To assist with addressing housing needs, the Recovery Act allocated $510 million to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for the Native American Housing Block Grant program for new housing construction, acquisition, rehabilitation, and infrastructure development. By December 1, 2010, tribal recipients had already expended almost two-thirds of those funds for new construction, rehabilitations, energy-efficient improvements, and infrastructure development in Indian Country. In addition, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has a number of other housing initiatives. On October 12, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Indian Veterans Housing Opportunity Act. The Act amends the definition of ―income‖ for HUD’s Indian Housing Block Grant program so that the determination of a family’s income excludes amounts received from the Department of Veterans Affairs for a service-related disability, dependency, or indemnity compensation. The new law will benefit disabled Native American veterans and their families who might otherwise be ineligible for low-income housing assistance under HUD’s program. 12 In 2011 and 2012, HUD will conduct a comprehensive, national Native American Housing Needs Assessment Study. Before field research begins, the Office of Native American Programs is sponsoring a series of seven regional outreach meetings with tribal housing stakeholders, including tribal leaders; federal agencies; and private sector, non-profit, and state entities to discuss the upcoming study and to lay the groundwork for maximum participation. These outreach meetings will provide a forum for discussing the community and economic impact housing has on tribal communities as well as identifying the needs for creating sustainable reservation communities and economies. These meetings will continue the ongoing dialogue between HUD and tribal leaders in Indian Country. The Administration is also committed to supporting Native Americans’ success in K-12 and higher education. The Recovery Act invested $170.5 million in Indian education at the Department of Education and $277 million in Indian school construction at the Department of the Interior. The President’s FY 2011 Budget Request provides $31.7 million in funding for Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities in the Department of Education, a 5% increase over FY 2010. The Budget Request includes $127 million for postsecondary education for Native Americans under the Department of the Interior. The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act increases the maximum Pell Grant award by the Consumer Price Index, which is estimated to raise the award from $5,550 to $5,975, according to the Congressional Budget Office. In addition, the law provides $300 million for Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities, $50 million for Native AmericanServing Nontribal Institutions, and $150 million for Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions over the next ten years. These investments will be made in order to renew, reform, and expand programming so that students at these institutions are given every chance to reach their full potentials. These efforts respond to the concerns of Native American leaders as well as priorities identified in the Declaration. In addition, President Obama appointed members to the Department of Education’s National Advisory Council on Indian Education (Council), as authorized by the ESEA, who met for the first time on November 3, 2010. The current Council consists of fourteen members who are Native Americans. The Council is required to advise the Secretary of Education concerning the funding and administration of Department programs that include or may benefit American Indians and Alaska Natives, make recommendations to the Secretary of Education for filling the position of Director of Indian Education, and submit a report to Congress on any recommendations that the Council considers appropriate for the improvement of federal education programs that include or may benefit Native Americans. The Department of Education is also working to combat discrimination against Native Americans in education. In March 2011, the Department’s Office for Civil Rights will provide technical assistance on civil rights issues that affect Native American communities in California, with particular focus on national origin and race discrimination, harassment, and bullying, to an audience of parents, activists, tribal leaders, teachers, and school leaders. Together with the Department of Health and Human Services, it will also provide in Fall 2011 technical assistance to parents and students, as well as social outreach service providers for the Native American 13 communities, on civil rights issues that affect Native American communities in Minnesota and North Dakota. The Administration is also working with tribal leaders to bring their communities into the 21st Century by equipping them with high speed access to the Internet. Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Commerce have programs to do so. The Department of Agriculture recently awarded $32 million to bring high speed, affordable broadband to the Navajo Nation. The Department of Agriculture also received Recovery Act funds to expand broadband access. It provided grants and loans totaling over $158 million to expand broadband access in tribal communities through the Broadband Initiatives Program. This included ten infrastructure investments directly to tribes and tribally-owned businesses and eleven technical assistance awards to tribes to assist with regional broadband plans to promote economic development. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the Department of Commerce awarded almost 30 percent of the $4.7 billion that the Department received from the Recovery Act to Indian tribes and recipients that indicated that their projects will benefit tribal areas. This funding will be used to increase access to broadband services in underserved areas of the country. Similarly, the Department of Agriculture’s Rural Development office made $216.3 million in Recovery Act investments benefiting American Indian and Alaska Native populations, including $36.3 million for community water and wastewater infrastructure, $97.5 million for community facilities, and $81.1 million for single family housing (691 home loans). In addition, the Recovery Act allocated $310 million to the Department of Transportation for the Indian Reservation Roads Program and over $142 million to the Department of the Interior for roads maintenance. III. 5 Protecting Native American Cultures As President Obama has recognized, the indigenous peoples of North America have ―invaluable cultural knowledge and rich traditions, which continue to thrive in Native American communities across our country.‖ The many facets of Native American cultures – including their religions, languages, traditions and arts – need to be protected, as reflected in multiple provisions of the Declaration. Because of the breadth and depth of Native American cultures, they affect and are affected by the activities of many U.S. agencies. Some of those agencies’ efforts are noted in this section. In July, President Obama signed into law the Indian Arts and Crafts Amendments Act to strengthen the Indian Arts and Crafts Act, which makes it illegal to sell, offer, or display for sale any art or craft product in a manner that falsely suggests it is Indian-produced, an Indian product, or the product of a particular Indian tribe. The new act empowers all federal law enforcement 14 officers to enforce this prohibition and differentiates among penalties based on the price of the goods involved in the offense. The total market for American Indian and Alaska Native arts and crafts in the United States is estimated at a billion dollars, with an unknown but substantial amount of those sales going to misrepresented, non-authentic works. The Secretary of Agriculture, in a letter of July 2, 2010, directed the Department of Agriculture’s Office of Tribal Relations and the Forest Service to begin a process of review of all Forest Service policies and to consult with interested tribes about how the Department and the Forest Service can do a better job addressing sacred site issues while simultaneously balancing pursuit of the agency’s mission to deliver forest goods and services for current and future generations. He emphasized the need to examine the effectiveness of existing laws and regulations in ensuring a consistent level of sacred site protection that is more acceptable to the tribes. On July 30, 2010, the United Nations inscribed the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument as the first mixed (natural and cultural) World Heritage Site in the United States. The Department of the Interior played a leading role in coordinating the development of the nomination dossier and successful inscription by the World Heritage Committee. Papahānaumokuākea’s inscription as a World Heritage Site is important to Native Hawaiians because it recognizes and incorporates the richness of the habitat and wildlife with the living, indigenous, cultural connections to the sea – where modern Hawaiian wayfinders (noninstrument navigators) still voyage for navigational training on traditional double-hulled sailing canoes; an aspect of inscription unique to Papahānaumokuākea. Additionally, World Heritage status places this traditional skill, which was used to navigate across the world’s largest ocean – one of the greatest feats of human kind – onto the world stage. Since April 2010 the Department of Education has held six regional consultations with tribal officials regarding reauthorization of the ESEA. Among the statements heard time and time again were those on the importance of preserving Native languages. In response, the Administration has proposed changes to the ESEA that support, among other things, flexibility in the use of federal education funds to allow funding for Native language immersion and Native language restoration programs. Due to joint efforts of federal agencies and tribes, 152 notices of decisions to repatriate human remains and cultural items were published in the Federal Register in 2010. Each of these notices is a direct consequence of museums and federal agencies consulting with tribes concerning the repatriation of human remains and cultural items previously held in collections. These notices account for 1,628 human remains and 9,062 associated funerary objects, an additional 2,052 funerary objects not associated with an individual, 11 sacred objects, 10 objects of cultural patrimony, and an additional 388 items that are both sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony. In addition, the Forest Service is exercising its authority to assist tribes over the next several years in reburial of over 3,000 sets of human remains and their associated cultural items that had been removed from National Forests. The Department of the Interior, through the Fish and Wildlife Service, has also begun efforts with tribes to facilitate eagle feather possession for cultural and traditional uses and to 15 promote coordination in wildlife investigations and enforcement efforts to protect golden and bald eagles. Moreover, the Department of the Interior awarded over $8 million to support historic preservation programs and projects for Indian tribes, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiian organizations. $7,250,000 was awarded to 100 Tribal Historic Preservation Officer programs, and $899,316 to 26 communities for a broad range of cultural heritage projects. IV. Conclusion The United States has made great strides in improving its relationship with Native Americans and indigenous peoples around the world. However, much remains to be done. U.S. agencies look forward to continuing to work with tribal leaders, and all interested stakeholders, so that the United States can be a better model for the international community in protecting and promoting the rights of indigenous peoples

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THE UNITED NATIONS VS. THE WORLD GOVERNMENT

Never before has it been so important to find a solution to the problem of substituting law for force in international affairs. It is almost a cliche to say that our very existence depends on finding a solution and finding it soon - but if this is a cliche it is also a frightening truth. - U Thant, Secretary General, United Nations, 1963

Note: The page numbers have been left in this text for reference purposes.

1.   Historical Background  The author fought with the Allies in World War II from the ruins and  idealism of which came the present United Nations.  His right to take  an active role in the personal issue of world peace may be said to be  categorical and sovereign.  The same may be said of all combatants  from whichever "side."  To have been intimately involved with world  war and not to play a dynamic part in world peace is to have fought  in vain.  Worse, it is a betrayal of one's brothers who died in battle  and of the wives, mothers, sons and daughters whose deaths testify  to the totality of 20th century war.  Two years after the atom bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the  author came to realize that the United Nations, as originally and  presently constituted, could not fulfill its avowed mission of world  peace.  Based on the principle of collective security of exclusive  nation-states, which defect led to the collapse of the League of  Nations and World War II, it lacked the sovereign legislative,  administrative, judicial and enforcement ability, democratically  controlled, to govern the world community wherein war would be  outlawed.  The Dumbarton Oaks proposal of the Four Powers, the United States,  Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union, condemned in advance  the San Francisco Conference to a sterile exercise of national  diplomacy which continues to this day.  No nation proposed-- in  recognition of our being one world in time and space-- to make us  world citizens under a representative government dealing directly  with people everywhere.  Only China and Columbia expressed a  willingness to delegate sovereignty to the organization while France  and Venezuela paid passing tribute to a federal system.  It must be  added that a world legislature was proposed by Ecuador, the  Philippines and Venezuela while more power for the General  Assembly was proposed by Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Costa  Rica, Egypt, France, Greece, Guatemala, Liberia, Mexico, New Zealand,  Norway and Uruguay.  As to the veto of the Security Council, seventeen nations opposed it  as completely contrary to the doctrine of the sovereign equality of  states while Ecuador maintained flatly that it represented anarchy  and the Australian delegate pointed out that if five states of the  original United States had enjoyed a veto, the ten amendments to the  Constitution would never have been adopted.  As one at least equally concerned with world peace as any United  Nations delegate, in May, 1948, after becoming stateless by virtue of  Section 401(f) of the U.S. Nationality Act of 1940, the author claimed  the status of world citizenship.  By so doing, he was fulfilling his P. 116  international civic obligations implied by the Nurnberg Charter under  Article 6(a)(b) and (c) which defines "crimes coming within the  jurisdiction of the Tribunal for which there shall be individual  responsibility."*  The right to assume individual civic responsibility in a given  community is the essence of course of the democratic principle and  the true meaning of sovereignty.  This has been subsequently  confirmed by Arts. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 15(2), 18, 19 and 29 of the Universal  Declaration of Human Rights.  The author's direct relationship with the United Nations itself began  on  11 September 1948 when he was ordered by ministerial decision  to leave France.  Repairing to the "international territory" of the U.N.,  about to hold its 3rd General Assembly at the Palais de Chaillot in  Paris, he requested global political asylum as a World Citizen in a  petition to then Secretary-General Trygve Lie.  This petition  specifically called for a review conference, according to Article 109 of  the U.N. Charter to convoke a world constitutional convention to draft  a world constitution for the governance of the world community.  At  the request of the Secretariat, he was summarily expelled from the  "international territory" by the French police under orders from the  Ministry of the Interior.  Once again he "petitioned" the General Assembly, this time from the  balcony of the Palais de Chaillot the 22nd of November 1948,  interrupting a session with the aid of friends and fellow World  Citizens, calling for a world constitutional convention.  Again, he was  summarily ex- _____________________________________________________________ *II.  Jurisdiction and General Principles, Article 6, para. 2.  The U.N.  Secretary-General, in his Supplementary Report to the General  Assembly of 24 October 1946 stated that "In the interest of peace,  and in order to protect mankind against future wars, it will be of  decisive significance to have the principles which were implied in the  Nurnberg trials, and according to which the German war criminals  were sentenced, made a permanent part of the body of international  law as quickly as possible.  From now on the instigators of new wars  must know that there exist both law and punishment for their  crimes.  Here we have a high inspiration to go forward and begin the  task of working toward a revitalized system of international law."  On  15 November 1946, the U.S. delegation introduced a proposal to the  U.N. "...to initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose  of encouraging the progressive development of international law and  its codifications "...and reaffirmed ...the principle of international law  recognized by the Charter of the Nurnberg Tribunal and the  judgment of the tribunal."  U.N. General Assembly Resolution  488.48(v) 1950, "Nuremberg Trials," entered the principles to  international law.  P. 117  pelled, this time by U.N. security guards.  Increasing public support  however coalesced into a worldwide movement for peace through  world citizenship.  Dr. Herbert Evatt, then-President of the General Assembly, granted  the author a personal hearing agreeing to distribute the petitions  endorsed by a public meeting at the Salle Pleyel to all delegations.   On 3 December 1948, at a public meeting at the Velodrome d'Hiver,  Dr. Evatt's personal response was read.  In substance, he wrote that  the United Nations was not constituted to make peace between the  "Big Powers" but only "to maintain it once made."  From this public acknowledgment of its President that the United  Nations was inherently unable to "make peace" between "Big  Powers"-- a situation which prevails today 30 years later-- which  required world law and its sovereign institutions, we the people of  the world, understood that world peace depended on each of us, not  as exclusive nationals but as world citizens.  We understood that we  had to become identified as a "world people" before we could claim  our right to determine our own political, economic, social and cultural  destiny.  Coincident with these historical events, the General Assembly on 10  December 1948 proclaimed the UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF  HUMAN RIGHTS  "...as a common standard of achievement for all  peoples and all nations..." endorsing the principle of a world  democratic legal order+.  Both the concept of world citizenship as well as the eventual World  Government of World Citizens was thereby mandated by this United  Nations document to which all Member States became subject upon  signing the Charter itself (Ref. arts. 55, 56).  Needless to say, despite article 109(3) which provides for a review  conference after ten years of the U.N.'s existence, no such conference  has yet been held, every member of the Security Council with veto  power being on record as in opposition.*  In the five years following the above events, literally millions of ___________________________________________________________ +Preamble, para 4 and Article 28.  *U.N. General Assembly Resolution 375(IV), 6 December 1949.   "Declaration on Rights and Duties of States", Art. 14 states:  "Every  State has the duty to conduct its relations with other States in  accordance with international law and with the principle that the  sovereignty of each State is subject to the supremacy of international  law."  P. 118  ordinary citizens throughout the world actively endorsed world  citizenship with more than 750,000 actually registering at the  International Registry of World Citizens in Paris which the author  founded with friends in January, 1949.  Given this popular mandate, and invoking both the highest moral  principles and the imperative need of humankind in toto and each  human being to survive, the author declared the World Government  of World Citizens on 4 September, 1953 at Ellsworth, Maine, U.S.A.+  The administrative and executive agency of the new government was  founded at New York City, January, 1954 under the name, World  Service Authority.*  The first official World Government document, the World Passport,  was printed and issued beginning in June, 1954.  It was based on  Art. 13(2), UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS.  Sample copies were addressed to all national governments*,  to the  High Commissioner for Refugees, to the U.S. Federal Bureau of  Investigation, to the Security Division, United Nations Secretariat, and  to the International Federation of Travel Agents.  Thirty-six  governments acknowledged receipt of the sample passport, Ecuador,  Laos, Cambodia, and Yemen accorded it de facto  recognition and  certain other governments indicated they would take advantage of  the document when the occasion presented itself.  No national  government returned or rejected the document.  The 2nd edition of the world Passport was printed in November,  1971 and sample copies sent to all national governments.+  The third  edition of the World Passport was printed in June, 1975 with  samples again addressed to national governments.**  The World Service Authority central office is in Basel, Switzerland.  It  is organized as a non-profit association under Swiss Civil Code 60 ss.   World Service Authority District II has offices in London and World  Service Authority District III in Washington, D.C.  The latter is  organized as a non-profit corporation in the District of Columbia. __________________________________________________________ +See "Ellsworth Declaration" (excerpted) appended.  **Purpose:  1) To realize fundamental human rights as outlined in  U.D.H.R.:  2) To promote technical, and global coordination of  organizations, specialized agencies, etc. working for general good;  3)  Provide documentation service for world citizenry corresponding to  the articles of U.D.H.R. *Accompanying letter appended.  P. 119  2.   The United Nations - An Analysis vis-a-vis the World  government of World Citizens  The present U.N. Secretary-General, Dr. Kurt Waldheim, is not  unaware of the Organization's defects.  In his 1977 Annual Report, in  noting "increasing frustration and disappointment at the failure to  protect and promote human rights in various parts of the world..." he  reminds us that "...it must be remembered that the existing  machinery such as the Commission on Human Rights is  intergovernment and intergovernmental bodies of course reflect the  position of Member-States."*  Unfortunately his conclusions are  vividly and tragically known to millions of victims of war,  deprivation and torture:  "Thus we continue to have a conflict  between the individual asserted principles of national sovereignty  and the broad commitment to human rights."**  His own concern for this lethal duality-- reflected also by his  predecessors-- is apparent when he maintains that "For the work of  the United Nations to be effective in the field of human rights, we  need the active commitment, cooperation and political will of the  international community."+  Exclusive nation-states however cannot exercise "political will"  internationally which implies a political framework.  What they can  and do exercise is their "power will" backed either by economic clout  or by armies.  "Political will" outside the national constitutional  framework presumes people acting civically in the world community.   From this civic commitment evolves inevitably a corollary sovereign  institution, divorced from nations, to which such individuals turn for  help, giving it their primary loyalty, which becomes thereby capable  of protecting human rights from violations by nations.  When the individual politically bypasses the nation-state in a  unilateral exercise of his/her innate sovereignty, s/he is acting ipso  facto as a citizen of the world.  Further, s/he is incorporating the  universal and unitive principles of world government just as the  local and/or national citizen incorporates the principles of his/her  locality and/or nation. ___________________________________________________________ *Section V, para. 5 **Ibid. *Section V, para. 7  P. 120  The failure of the United Nations is nowhere more nakedly revealed  than in the problem of disarmament.  Since General Assembly  Resolution 41(1) of 14 December 1946 to Resolution 31/72 of 10  December 1976, spanning 32 years of lip-service to the problem,  general world disarmament has been grotesquely and disastrously  mocked by 94 international wars, over $6 trillion of the world's tax- payers' money spent on destruction, over 50 million killed and many  more crippled, made homeless and refugeed, a 1977 global  armament budget of over $300 billion-- almost 8% of the world's  gross national product when endemic poverty is the daily grim  condition of hundreds of millions-- and an overkill capacity  hundreds of times over.  "Stocks of nuclear weapons," writes Dr.  Waldheim, "have already been sufficient to destroy the world many  times over, and yet the number of warheads has increased five-fold  in the past eight years."  Not only does the Secretary-General  recognize the universality of the problem-- "...In a period where a  new form of world society symbolized by the United Nations, is  emerging, (disarmament is) a problem which vitally affects them all  (the majority of the medium and small Powers)"-- but that all  nations "should play an important part in a comprehensive approach  to disarmament aimed at real disarmament  in the context of  world order."  (Emphasis added.)+  Though his appeal for "world order" is understandably addressed  only to national powers-- which inadvertently exposes the  fundamental contradiction of the underlying premise of the United  Nations itself-- he can only mean the political reality of a world  sovereign, i.e. legal power which can only derive from the true  sovereigns, humankind and its fundamental integer, the human  person.**  Since the nation-state is by definition incapable of extending itself  politically beyond its own sovereignty, the aware individual must  recognize his/her sovereignty as already directly allied to that of  humankind itself on a de facto  or actual as well as moral basis.  The  Founding Fathers of the United States of America, to take but one  example, recognized both a de facto  and morally-based common  citizenship between 1778 and 1887 yet politically disunited.  They  remedied the situation with the U.S. Constitution.  That common  world citizenship is the dynamic conceptual and actual fact of the  20th ________________________________________________________ *Section IV, para. 3, 1977 Annual Report *Section IV, para. 8       "         "         " **Appended are statements from Heads of State advocating the rule  of law as indispensable to world peace.  P. 121  century rendered by contrast startling apparent by the totality of  nuclear war-- paling into virtual insignificance all lesser problems--  as well as by related global crises such as pollution, gross economic  injustice, depletion of the planet's resources and the like.  The institutionalization of our common world citizenship, as we have  pointed out, has already begun.  Thus the complementing of the  international penal code of the Nurnberg Decisions by the World  Government of World Citizens removes the fundamental cause of  war, i.e. the absolute sovereignty of nation-states.  Only by so doing  can nations disarm in security and world peace eventually ensue as  trust and cooperation become reinforced by just world law.  In his Report, the U.N. Secretary-General overtly sanctions the  extension of individual sovereignty-- as already codified by the  Nurnberg Decisions-- beyond one's national allegiance.  In discussing  the administration of the U.N.*, he maintains that the Charter "...is  very clear on the exclusive international loyalty of the Secretariat...."+  Moreover, every Member-State is obligated "to respect the  exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the  Secretary-General and the staff...."*  The primary political allegiance then of Dr. Kurt Waldheim and  every member of his staff is to an organization-- not a government  to which an individual can affiliate civically-- which he admits  publicly as the highest civil servant of that organization is  constitutionally powerless to sanction and protect fundamental  human rights, the first of which is the right to live.  This paradoxical  political allegiance is duly sanctioned by the U.N. Charter, the binding  international instrument of all Member-States.  It follows that the  sovereign right of all humans to identify themselves politically as  world citizens allied to its governmental counterpart by a simple  pledge is likewise condoned implicitly by the United Nations Charter.   Not only Article 15(2), UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN  RIGHTS, sanctions the right of the individual to choose his/her  government, but the U.N. Charter itself as well as the  INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS __________________________________________________________ *Section X, Para. 2 +Article 100(1):  "In the performance of their duties, the Secretary  General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any  government or from any authority external to the Organization." *Article 100(2), U.N. Charter P. 122  ON HUMAN RIGHTS+ recognize the right of self-determination of  peoples and that the States Parties to these Covenants "shall promote  the realization of the right of self-determination and shall respect  that right in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the  United Nations."  Furthermore, the United Nations by definition and by Article 20(1),  U.D.H.R., recognizes the right of association.  Notwithstanding the first  three words of its Charter:  "We, the People...", it does not however  admit membership by individuals.  It cannot therefore disapprove  the founding by individuals unrepresented democratically by its  mandate of a governmental institution to which they can associate as  sovereign citizens thereby fulfilling their determination "to save  succeeding generations from the scourge of war...reaffirm faith in  fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human  person, etc...."*  Again, the Secretary-General condones this position in his remarks  concerning the helplessness of the Commission on Human Rights+  when he writes, "...in the present circumstances of international  affairs, I feel that my actions must be governed by one overriding  criterion,. namely, what approach will best serve the welfare of the  individual concerned."**  This humane "approach" is clearly and unequivocally spelled out in  the Preamble of the UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS  itself:  "Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have  recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression,  that human rights should be protected by a regime of law...."  And  Art. 28 confirms the character of this "regime of __________________________________________________________ + The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for  signature on 19 December 1966, entered into force for the following  States on 23 March 1976:  Barbados, Bulgaria, Byelorussian SSR,  Canada, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,  Ecuador, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Federal Republic of  Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon,  Libyan Arab Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Mongolia,  Norway, Romania, Rwanda, Surinam, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic,  Tunisia, Ukranian SSR, U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, United Republic of  Tanzania, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Spain, Panama, Poland. **Part I, art. 1(3) *Preamble, U.N. Charter +General Assembly Resolution 728 (XXVIII):  "The Economic and  Social Council approves the statement that the Commission on Human  Rights recognizes that it has no power to take any action in regard to  any complaints concerning human rights." **Section V, Para. 6, 1977 Annual Report  P. 123  law":  "Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in  which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be  fully realized."  The oppressed individual must therefore avail himself of the most  effective "approach" to secure protection of his fundamental rights  and freedoms "in the context of world order."  The WORLD GOVERNMENT OF WORLD CITIZENS then represents the  genuine political genesis of that world order which already has  myriad other manifestations far advanced such as communications,  technology, commerce, medicine, travel, etc., and represented in  some measure by the specialized agencies.  The Secretary-General defined in his 1977 Report our very World  Citizen allegiance:  "The United Nations is also...the symbol of a higher  and more ambitious political and social aim, the evolution of an  international community with interests, aspiration and loyalties of a  far more wide-ranging kind."*  (Emphasis added.)  He concedes that  the U.N. "is in search of its identity and its true role..." which again is  to say that it has not found either yet, and that "...It tends to react  rather than to foresee, to deal with effects of a crisis rather than  anticipate and forestall that crisis."  As a result, he adds, "its  problems sometimes seem insurmountable and its frustrations  intolerable."+  The United Nations therefore, as presently constituted, based on  exclusive national sovereignty, represents world disorder or, to put  it boldly, international anarchy.  It is thus per se an institution of  discord and conflict.  Its Secretary-General however tells us that "We  are, I believe, beginning to see the birth of such a community  (international).**  We World Citizens allied wilfully to World Government are in  common accord with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on  this point.  But we would go further.  Neither the world community  nor humankind are abstractions.  Both are dynamic facts of the 20th ____________________________________________________________ *Section I, Para. II, 1977 Annual Report +Section X, para. 6,      "          "         "     .   His predecessor, U Thant,  in discussing the obligations of the S.G. stated:  "The Secretary- General operates under the Charter in a world of independent  sovereign states, where national interests remain dominant despite  ideological, technological and scientific changes, and despite the  obvious dangers of unbridled nationalism....  The truth is of course,  that the United Nations, and the S.G., have none of the attributes of  sovereignty, and no independent power...." **Section I, para. II, 1977 Annual Report  P. 124  century, of the Space Age.  And to imagine that humankind and the  world community can endure in an 18th century political system of  separate, exclusive nation-states armed with nuclear weapons is not  only utopic but suicidal.  In the light of the total crisis facing our human race, the exercise of  individual world sovereignty becomes not only legitimate by virtue  of the highest conceptual values taught by humanity's sages from  time immemorial, by the total interdependence of each and all to a  common eco-system as well as to common social needs, and by the  entire plethora of "international instruments" aforementioned  mandating and sanctioning the new planetary role of the individual,  but it is the very price of human survival.  No less than Dr. Waldheim himself on 20 May 1974 admonished us to  accept individual responsibility for world affairs with these words:      "The choice is in our hands.  No nation and no individual can be  a bystander at this critical moment in the history of the world.   There are occasions when the magnitude and complexity of the tasks  we face make a sensitive and responsible individual feel dispirited  and helpless.  But as the record of the last 30 years shows us, there is  nothing beyond our capacity if we act collectively.  That is why it is  so important that every one of you recognize your responsibility not  only as a citizen of your own country, but as a citizen of the world--  and above all, an active one."  We, the WORLD CITIZENS of WORLD GOVERNMENT, have approved  and acted upon the United Nations' Secretary-General's endorsement  of that willful and legitimate civic role.
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In the 2008 General Assembly AG / RES it was adopted. 2362 (XXXVIII-O / 08) Inter-American Program for Universal Civil Registry and the Right to Identity. This program instructs the General Secretariat of the OAS to support Member States in their efforts to achieve the universality and accessibility of civil registry, and meet the goal of universal birth registration by 2015 Identity is a fundamental right Man, which has historically been recognized in various international legislative bodies:


bullet FOLLOW-UP TO THE INTER-AMERICAN PROGRAM FOR UNIVERSAL CIVIL REGISTRY AND THE "RIGHT TO IDENTITY" - (Approved by the Permanent Council at its meeting held on May 25, 2012) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)  

bullet

bulletArticle 6: "Everyone has the right to nationality" Article 15: "Everyone has the right, everywhere, to the recognition of legal personality" 
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bullet American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948) 

bulletArticle 17: "Everyone has the right to the nationality to which he is entitled by law" Article 19: "Everyone has the right to be recognized everywhere as a subject of rights and obligations, and to enjoy the basic civil rights" 
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bulletConvention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

bulletArticle 7: "The State shall respect the right of children to preserve their identity, including their nationality, name and family relations" Article 8: "The child shall be registered immediately after birth and has the right to a name and nationality and know and be cared for by his parents " 

Why is indispensable civil identity?

PUICACurrently, 10% of children born in Latin America and the Caribbean do not officially exist because his birth is not recorded. As for the adults, there is no accurate data on the number of people who were never registered, the percentages varying significantly between countries, and also between different areas within countries. What yes no certainty is that poverty is a constant factor when underreporting, and this mainly affects the most vulnerable populations.

This means that States are not aware of its existence and therefore those children and adults will be excluded from access to a range of services and rights that otherwise you would be guaranteed.

On the one hand, civil identity is indispensable for the exercise of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, and to enforce the rights to nationality, the name, juridical status and family ties.

In turn, civil identity is vital for strengthening democratic governance because it allows citizens to actively participate in the political life of a State, making use of their right to vote.

Also, a universal registration is the basis for States to have precise information on the population and so to develop their plans for social and economic development.

From 2010 to the present, PUICA has implemented projects in 17 member states of Central and South America and the Caribbean in five strategic areas. ¹   Each of the strategic areas respond to one or more of the objectives set out in resolution 2362.

1. Registration System Hospital
Implementing a hospital registry system has two major objectives: helping to reduce underreporting at the precise moment it happens and serves as a primary meeting point for both mothers and fathers to the hospital staff and other community workers. In coordination with the authorities of civil registries and public hospitals, these projects ensure the existence of adequate spaces, provide technological equipment and support training and awareness campaigns on the importance of birth registration. In response to the request of national counterparts, hospital records PUICA implemented in the following countries. 

2. mobile registration campaigns in border areas 
Generally the causes of underreporting can be attributed to the lack of access of citizens to the civil registry offices. The mobile registration units are transferred to these remote to provide documents or correct mistakes in the record information areas in situ. These projects also facilitate partnerships with public, non-governmental and religious, carried out awareness campaigns, provide training and They provide appropriate technological infrastructure, establishing a permanent mechanism to ensure civil identity in these communities. In the past two years, PUICA has focused its efforts in the border areas, whose populations are disproportionately more likely to be without identification documents.  

3. Reconstruction of lost or destroyed documents
Responding to the request of the government of Peru, PUICA provided technical assistance for the reconstruction of identity records were destroyed in the internal conflict during the 1980s and 1990s. This effort combined elements of public awareness, archival research and implementation of technology to repair and preserve damaged documents.  4. Institutional interoperability and security Database Until recently, most civil registration procedures were performed manually. The information included in large log books, often filed in municipalities that had under his responsibility the registration of births, deaths and marriages.Most of the countries of the Americas have initiated processes automation of records in centralized databases using scanned versions of the original records to verify the accuracy of the information. Eventually, civil registries expand the interconnection of its offices to facilitate registration in remote regions and provide updates on vital statistics other government entities information.  5. Horizontal cooperation and identification of best practices One of the primary purposes of PUICA is to promote regional horizontal cooperation in the many facets of civil identity. The main mechanism for this exchange of information is the Latin American and Caribbean Council for Civil Registration, Identity and Vital Statistics (CLARCIEV). PUICA has also developed strategic partnerships with the United Nations Fund for Children, the Inter-American Development Bank, Plan International and has conducted analyzes and workshops with various authorities of civil registration in the Americas. It has also worked closely on the issue of security of documents with the International Civil Aviation Organization and the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism.

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Re-Ligion is basically the justification for the theft of the Kushite AmuuruCanaan Indios Identity..... True purpose of spirituality is to maintain & claim ancestral rituals, art, habits, relative bloodlines, sacred spaces, land, technology,a customs,practices,intellectual property, treaties, inheritance, royalties, credit, wisdom, wealth, via workship or trustee work....She does a great job to strip the inherent divinity or lordship, true and known presentation so that present day credit and royalties due to the descendant of ham to the historically real and living Murti People who she denationalizes by making them symbols and idols and strips them of their true faith and credit score in society, that would immediately provide hamedic amaru people all over the Kush,Kish,Kesh,Gish,Quiche,Xi-ite, Kasha, Meru,Mero, Mara, Mauri, Moro, Maya, Mari, Mura, Moor diaspora the Current(cy) Present day respect, reparations and purchasing power and development authority and economic advantages they need to to end the bullshit larping performed by the creators, capitalizers and the incorporated protectors of white inferiority.  Even though she knows damn well that the dynasties and hindu religion of Indus began with the Moravians not the Chandras 

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THE AFRIKAN & AmurruCanaan EMANCIPATION DAY REPARATIONS MARCH 2015
THEME: EDUCATION IS PART OF THE PREPARATION FOR REPARATIONS

LONDON, AUGUST 1st 2015, the Afrikan Heritage Community will be marching from Brixton Windrush Square at 11am to Parliament with the following aims and purpose:

1. To draw attention to Afrikan peoples’ global determination to not let the British State and other perpetrators get away with the crimes of the Maangamizi (Afrikan hellacaust of chattel, colonial and neo-colonial enslavement).

2. To hand in the Stop the Maangamizi: We Charge Genocide/Ecocide petition requesting an All-Party Commission of Inquiry for Truth & Reparatory Justice in order to raise consciousness about the fact that all the attacks on us, in both individual and collective instances, amount to Genocide/Ecocide in Maangamizi continuity necessitating reparations.
https://www.change.org/p/stop-the-maa...

3. To increase awareness of the necessity to ‘Stop the Maangamizi’ and its current manifestations such as austerity, attempts to recolonise Afrika, mentacide and deaths in police, psychiatric and prison custody.

4. To demonstrate Afrikan peoples’ strength, capacity and determination to speak to and challenge establishment power with our growing grassroots power to effect and secure reparations (reparatory justice) on our own terms.

5. To highlight Afrikan peoples grassroots demands and initiatives for effecting and securing reparations.

Despite the legitimacy of the calls for reparations and the unitary nature of the cause, members of the Global Afrikan Nation-in-Formation have, in the main, been working in isolation of each other in regions of our displacement, instead of unifying the struggle for reparations with Afrikan reparations constituencies on the continent of Afrika. Despite state interventions arising from the pressure coming from the International Social Movement for African Reparations (ISMAR) ‘from below’, there has been very little co-ordinated grassroots action around the cause of reparations, however, now it is happening. After a resoundingly successful Reparations March on the 1st of August 2014 in London, England, the Global Afrikan Nation has seen it fit to have a solid co-ordinated march this year. There will be simultaneous marches and other mobilisations in Afrika, North America, the Caribbean and Europe. The 1st of August has been chosen as the day of the march because it is the officially recognised “Emancipation Day”, marking the passing of the Abolition of Slavery Act in the British Empire, on 1 August 1833.

Find out more @ https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?...

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King Tut is Camped in Amurru Territory & Fighting the Mittani in the Spike Series "TUT"

These are the original AmurruCanaan People that were enslaved and dispersed and cursed with the burden of slavery and Gypt out of their homelands

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"Near East 1400 BCE" by User:Javierfv1212 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Near_East_1400_BCE.png. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons.

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Special Sirius Rising "TRUE PHASE" Edition and Freedom Jewelry

This July we are celebrating a specal event of Sirius Rising in a "TRUE PHASE".  Also, to welcome the Yearly vacation period we offer a set of Freedom Jewelry from several caltures and traditions.

 


Sirius Rising Talisman - "TRUE PHASE" Edition
Limited Edition! Assembled on July 6th 2015 12:30-12:58+3GMT.
This year we will be doing a Talisman for Sirius "True Phase" , let me explain... 
In the ancient tradition, probably originating in egypt, but also practiced and elaborated in the hellenistic period, there was an intricate doctrine which defined and explained the phases of the fixed stars and constellations in relation to the Sun, their heliacal rising and setting, and their co- rising or rising parallel to when the Sun rises or culminates in the diurnal cycle.

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In a book titled "The phases of the fixed stars" the second century astronomer and astrologer Claudius Ptolemy carefully explains the different phases. The word phase comes from phasis/ phainó which means an appearance/becoming visible, therefore phases are different ways in which a planet becomes visible, the most important of which is the morning phase which is the heliacal rising of the Planet/Star when it first becomes visible rising before dawn.

15% Discount for Sirius Rising Talisman and Freedom Jewelry

Valid Until July 15th

 So what is a TRUE PHASE - Ptolemy tells us that when a star is co-rising (which is essentially a conjunction although the fixed stars can be pretty far from the ecliptic) with the Sun this is its True phase, this is very rare considering that this is a time whena star is most invisible as it is totally concealed in the rays of the Sun...

So what is that a Phase and how come this is a True phase!? well the answer is that it is because a star generally makes a phase or an appearance in the external world which is visible to the eye (which also consider very powerful), but when it is "In" the Sun, so to speak, It is visible to the Mind's eye (the Sun was considered the eye of the cosmic Mind) and therefore shows its True form (In the greek sense of the word which is essence).

This kind of Sun conjunction to a fixed star is very powerful, as is proven by experience, it gives a higher insight and access to the powerful virtues of the star. It is in correlation with the Term Cazimi (in the heart of Sun) which is when a Planet is exactly conjunct the Sun.

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As Sirius is considered by some to be the central Sun of our Sun, this alignment is very potent and powerful as it revives and replenishes the solar fires of life and give power, success,  Brilliance and magnanimity to the wearer.

SIRIUS was very important to the Egyptians, as it was Helically rising in the summer coinciding with the flooding of the Nile, and also marked the beginning point of the ancient Egyptian yearly calendar (and its Decanic division..see below). SIRIUS was considered a life giver, and was affiliated with the goddess Isis.

SIRIUS is a star of success and power, excellence, wealth, ardor, faithfulness, devotion and passion for achieving one's goals. It marks immense creative talents in any field, and makes the native Brilliant and inspired.

The images on the Talisman are the Image of Sopdet (also Sepdet or Sothis). Sopdet is the goddess that represents Sirius. Sopdet is displayed, riding her boat in the night sky, with a star on top of her headdress while holding a lotus flower. The Lotus probably represents one year's cycle, thus linking her to the yearly rising of Sirius and the new year.

The back of the Talisman bears the Egyptian Hieroglyph of Sirius and the ancient magical seal of Sirius. The canister contains Juniper and Wormwood according to an ancient formula for the making a Sirius Talisman. The formula can be found in the hermetic writings of Hermes and Cornelius Agrippa. 




Freedom Jewelry 15% off

 A set of Jewelry with Freedom symbols from different cultures from around the world like the Vikings Amulets, The Rebel's Ring and pendant, Bulgakov's book "Master and Margarita" and more.

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Native American Indian people were often recorded by census takers and vital records employees as any race other than American Indian. Many Native records have Colored, Black, Negro, Mulatto, or even White on them in error. 
Note: *The U.S. Supreme Court struck down Walter Plecker's Racial Integrity Act in 1967. Race reclassification is illegal, yet it is still being practiced by government offices throughout America. 
Source: Racial Integrity Act, Loving v. Virginia June 12, 1967, 388 U.S. 1, Loving v. Virginia (No. 395), Argued: April 10, 1967, Decided: June 12, 1967, 206 Va. 924, 147 S.E.2d 78, reversed.

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The first annual Camming Con took place in Miami Beach, Florida, over the weekend of June 4-7, 2015. And it was a resounding success! SeksCity.Net Presents Urban Amateurs Live models Kendra Sunderland and Sophia Locke were in attendance, and so were their fans. This means you! Thank you for coming out and showing our models the love.

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If you missed a chance to meet our models in person, that's OK. There's only so much a cam girl can do in public; just think of what might happen when it's just you, her and a webcam behind closed doors. Log on now.

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OpenBazaar.com Gets Funding

OpenBazaar Team Raises $1M from USV and A16Z to Make Trade Free

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The OpenBazaar core team is excited to announce that we’ve received $1 million in seed funding from Union Square Ventures, Andreessen Horowitz, and angel investor William Mougayar to develop the OpenBazaar protocol and client, and build the first business on top of the OpenBazaar network.

The OpenBazaar project was launched in April 2014 and received vocal support from the bitcoin community, who share our vision for a free and decentralized ecommerce platform using bitcoin. OpenBazaar is ambitiously combining several technologies including peer-to-peer networking, Ricardian contracts, decentralized reputation, and multisignature escrow for bitcoin payments. Despite our best efforts as part-time volunteers, progress was slow. The project needed the core contributors to make development a full-time effort in order to release a robust application within a reasonable time-frame.

This funding allows us to commit our full-time resources to develop OpenBazaar. Not only will it allow us to work with the community to finish the first full release of the core protocol and application, but it also gives us the opportunity to create the first business on top of the OpenBazaar network. This business, which we’ve named OB1, will offer services to OpenBazaar users, and aims to bootstrap adoption of decentralized commerce.

OpenBazaar will always be open source and MIT licensed. As a global software community, we’ve intentionally created OpenBazaar so that there are no fees required to use the network, and there is no central authority controlling trade, taking a cut, or monitoring data. As a result, companies such as OB1 cannot act as a central authority on the network. OB1 will aid decentralized commerce by offering services such as dispute resolution, store hosting, and more.

With their history of helping build networks with large user bases and their focus on new decentralized technologies such as bitcoin, Union Square Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz are the perfect partners to help OpenBazaar become widely adopted. William Mougayar is a board member as well as angel investor, and brings many years of experience in startups to our team.

OpenBazaar—aided by OB1—can become the platform which makes decentralized commerce online a reality. If the bitcoin community joins us in developing the code further, testing new releases, and adopting it on release, we will succeed.

OpenBazaar has always been community-driven, and the OB1 team will be an important part of the community. But it will only be a part – we’ll follow up this post with another from other OpenBazaar community members. We’ll all work together to make trade free.

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Brooklynne Brands & Services

Brands

TicketENVY- Find & Buy Sold out Concert, Sports and Theater Tickets Worldwide

SportsBrook- Fully Licensed Online Urban Sports Betting and Gaming Platform (Coming Soon)

KaratCity- Helping to provide regular people save and spend GOLD

VerticalRents- Helping Landlords mange and engage their Tenants Easier

MyTeleMedics- Get your Personal and Family Remote Healthcare Services NOW

FunderPass- Crowdfunding Platform for Urban Communty Projects Cause Activism and Upstanding Individual Needs

SeksCity Toys- Adult Pleasure Aids and Supplies (Must Be 18+)

Services

Brooklynne Info Weekly- News nd Events of featured Brooklyn Entrepreneurs and Community Related Issues

Brooklynne Style Daily- Brooklyn & NYC Based Style and Fashion News

Brooklynne Shop- Exclusive Graphic Designs from Featured Artists and Partners

Brooklynne TV- Watch Underground Indie Videos Podcasts & Live Events

Brooklynne Hookups-  Find Urban Dates and HookUps

Local Business Services

The Brooklynne Agency -Full Service Digital Marketing and Development Marketplace

Brooklynne Social - Free Social Media Marketing Mgmt Platform for Brands

The Brooklynne Agency - Office

Phetch.Co Ordering Mgmt

Xpurts by Phetch - Have REMOTE private conferences and meetings with Professional Experts

Go Phetch - Multi Cuisine Order and Delivery Mgmt Facilites and Marketplace for local Ethnic Food Providers in Brooklyn (Coming to NYC HOU DMV  & ATL)

Phetch IT- Order for Delivery Food Groceries Alcohol & Laundry from your favorite Independent merchants in your Area(Coming to NYC HOU DMV and ATL)

Phetch Charg- Start an Electric Vehicle Charging Station at yur Urban locations Tdday