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The World is Crypto SUPPORTING Brooklynne Networks - Thanks for all your Unsolicited Gifts and Help!

We Appreciate the Constant flow of Members Content, Help, Support & Donations for our Communities Development @ Brooklynne Networks in 2016!

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Thanks Everybody!, For all the Bitcoin donations already given to Support Us @ The Brooklynne Networks

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We Appreciate the Constant flow of Members Content, Help, Support & Donations for our Communities Development @ Brooklynne Networks in 2016!

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In 2017 We will be continuing our mission, Helping Urban Businesses, Artists, Activists, Community Leaders, Media Co's, Publishers & Entrepreneurs Contribute their Story, Content and now Products and Services so Brooklynne Networks can be a helpful commerce based social marketing and publishing tool for their Causes, Comments, Opinions and Commercial Marketing Sales and Distributions.

We Would Greatly Appreciate your Continued Support for us, as we develop urban based P2P on-demand marketplaces, premium service social communities, local crowd funding services, Outcome Based B4B Software as a Service Platforms and Professional Instructed  online education LMS services for the under served Urban Areas all over the world.

Thanks Everybody!, For all the Bitcoin donations already given to Support Us @ The Brooklynne Networks

Please make a Donation of any amount of Bitcoins to Help Us continue to operate effectively and initiate our future Plans here- 1CXZDNQQHo82bovRfFPqSFC8PH8woJRFjB

Or, You Can Simply Donate via our PayPal @ frogmouth@optonline.net

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MASHAPAUG NAHAGANSET TRIBE

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Re-formalized on December 15th, 2009 in Providence, Rhode Island the Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe is a Band of the mighty Nahaganset (People of the small point) Nation, that draws its historic connection to and from the great Nahaganset Sâchemaog of the North leading up to and during the time of the King Phillip's War; Pomham (Shawomet), Socononoco (Pawtuxet) & Aguontis (Chaubatick). Mashapaug is considered the area covering all of Meshanticut (Place of many trees) and extending from the traditional ancestral grounds of Mashaupaug Pond in the southwest, to the lands of Neutaconkanut in the northwest (used for ceremony well into the 1920s) to the Mt Hope area in the northeast (home to and resting place of the late great Nahaganset Sâchem Sunset aka Edward Michael, of the noble Michael, Champlain, Congdon, Niles and Rodman Lineages; prominent ancestral names among the Nahaganset Nation), finally to the lands of Pawtuxet in the southeast, and all of the Moshassuck area in between. Historically Mashapaug was a thriving village of the Nahaganset people of the Northern territories. Mashapaug was considered a boundary of the Moshassuck lands that the Great Sâchem Miantinomo allowed for usage by Roger Williams for the settlement of Providence. However, once Pomham, the Great Sâchem of the Nahaganset territories of the North, declared his independence from the over lordship of Miantinomo in 1643, the area was considered under the rule of Pomham. From the colonial perspective, Pomham’s prominence as an independent and Great Sâchem of the Nahaganset Nation was acknowledged and solidified by the Colony of Rhode Island when he was identified, along with Canonicus, Canonchet, Quaiopen and Ninigret, as one of the principle Sâchemaog of the Nation and signers of the October 18th, 1675 Treaty requiring the Nahaganset to not support the Pokanokets and other warring tribes in the King Philip's War. Pomham died on July 27th, 1676 in Dedham Woods fighting valiantly and honorably for his people in the King Philip’s War. TheMashapaug Nahaganset Tribe continues to carry on the legacy of not only Mashapaug, but of all of the historic villages under the dominion of Pomham and his under Sâchemaog; Pawtuxet, Cowesett, Chaubatick, Meshanticut, Neutaconkanut, Apponaug, Occupesuatuxett, Moshassuck and Shawomet, the home of Pomham himself. In honor of the great legacy and the ongoing sovereignty of the Northern territories, the Principle Sâchem of the Mashapaug Tribe carries the Title of “Pomham Sâchem”. Tribal Body Membership in the Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe is open to any individual of Nahaganset Decent who can show Proof of Lineage to the Nahaganset Tribal Nation by demonstrating a bloodline connection to a) the 1763 Narragansett Indian Petition against the sale of Indian Lands or b) the 1881 Report of Commission on the Affairs of the Narragansett Indians to the Rhode Island General Assembly or c) the 1989 Narraganset Indian Tribe rolls or d) a documented Nahaganset member of the Brothertown, Wisconsin Settlement or e) a recognized Sâchem of the Nahaganset Tribal Nation or f) an individual identified in historical documents as being of Nahaganset decent. For the Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe, Tribal Body Membership is considered a birthright for individuals of Nahaganset decent. The Mission of the Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe is to provide and promote opportunities for community, economic and personal & professional development, educational attainment and social and civic activism for members of the Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe. The Vision of theMashapaug Nahaganset Tribe is to preserve, promote and cultivate Narragansett and Native American history, culture and tradition to and for the greater community. The Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe is a member of the Affiliated Tribes of New England Indians and the Federation of Aboriginal Nations of America. see less

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Historic

A historic gathering quietly took place on January 7, 2016, in Washington DC that may have broad positive implications for Native Americans in the United States. The purpose of the event was to file tort claims in the D.C. District Court to seek redress for centuries of genocide, slavery, and environmental racism.

The names are familiar to anyone with even a passing history of pre-colonial America.  Pokanoket, Nahaganset, Nehantick, Mashapaug, Usquepaug, Nipmuc, Lenape, Cherokee.  These are the first contact tribes here in 1524 when Giovanni da Verrazzano arrived in Narragansett (Nahaganset) Bay of Rhode Island, when the Pilgrims, in 1620, nearly a century later, accidentally landed on what is now Cape Cod, and when Henry Hudson, in 1609, sailed into what is now New York Harbor and met the first inhabitants of what is now known as New Jersey.

The participants of the gathering are members of the Federation of Aboriginal Nations of America (FANA), a group of the first contact indigenous nations mentioned above, who greeted the European colonists, and who are also members of the UN-recognized NGO, National Association for the Advancement of Indigenous People (NAAIP), headed by Hemoc Xelup, a citizen of the Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation.

FANA

The member tribes of FANA are not under the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).  In the United States, only some indigenous tribes have surrendered their sovereign rights to come under the control of the BIA which holds their lands in trust, grants permission for any activities taking place on reservation lands, and dictates how the tribe’s governance operates. Many historically documented indigenous tribes in the United States have chosen not to file the paperwork to become tribes under the BIA, due to a desire to keep their traditional governance structure and their sovereign and treaty rights, and indigenous land rights intact.

The goal of FANA was to create a confederation to welcome other indigenous tribes that want to preserve their rights and work together to move America forward in a positive way.

FANA supports the legal actions taken on behalf of the Nations involved in the filings to seek justice and has provided assistance to each Nation to substantiate their individual claims.

Plaintiffs

The Sagamore, Sachems and Chiefs filing torts on January 7, 2016 who represent the Pokanoket Nation, the Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation, and the Sand Hill Band of Lenape and Cherokee Indians were:

William Winds of Thunder Guy, Sagamore (Grand Sachem) of the Pokanoket Nation (consisting of four tribes) (Bristol, Rhode Island), a 10th generation direct descendent of Massasoit Ousamequin (Yellow Feather) who shared the Pokanoket traditional October Thanksgiving harvest feast with the Pilgrims in what is considered the First Thanksgiving, and signed the first Treaty between the Pokanoket, the Nipmuc and the Pilgrims, and also a direct descendent of Simeon Simons, the Pokanoket aide/body guard to George Washington.

Neesu Wushuwunoag – Sunnâdin Sachem, Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation/ Pomham Sachem, Mashapaug Nahaganset Tribe (Providence, Rhode Island).

Dr. Ronald Yonaguska Holloway, Principal Chief of the Sand Hill Band of Lenape and Cherokee Indians (New Jersey and Pennsylvania).

Other Chiefs and Sachems present to support the filings were:

Chief Darius J. TaliYona Ross (TaliYona Quosa), former Chief of the Ani~Tsalagi Onaselagi Northeastern Band (which was folded into the Sand Hill Band of Lenape and Cherokee Indians in August 2015) and current member of the Sand Hill Band of Lenape and Cherokee Indians Tribal Council.

Quenikom Pau Muckquashim – Touwúttin Sachem, Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation/Mascus Sachem, of the Usquepaug-Nehantick Nahaganset tribe (South Kingston, Rhode Island.)

Tort Claims

The tort claims were filed in the D. C. District Court in Washington DC at the same time in a historic show of solidarity.

The content of the claims against the Defendants directly address “racist policies that were put into place by the defendants to fraudulently extinguish and/or strip the Plaintiffs of their land claim rights, policies that have ultimately resulted in the inability of the Nations to utilize their lands in a traditional or sustainable manner as a result of environmental denigration and negligence on the part of the Defendants”.

Although the torts filed in the International Court are similar, the Plaintiffs and Defendants in each case are specific to the tribes and defendants involved.  Therefore each case must be adjudicated separately, and each case may be settled between the Nations and Defendants independently. There are four states involved in the claims filed, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania although the actual land traditionally occupied before the colonial era by these tribes was wider and included more states.

Timing

The timing of the filing is important.  According to Hemoc Xelup, citizen of the Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation, and head of the National Association for the Advancement of Indigenous People, the TPP agreement due to be signed next week will “basically extinguish many native indigenous rights”. It was important to file these claims before the signing of the TPP.  The indigenous view of the TPP is that it appears to be a gift to corporations at the expense of the indigenous tribes globally who are often their environmental victims. The type of claims made in the torts were important as well. He added that many “tribes don’t know they can file torts under environmental racism because all the other avenues have been closed.”

Many are also unaware that there was a UN deadline under the Sustainable Development Agenda that after December 31, 2014, unless groups filed paperwork before that deadline, any future claims by indigenous tribes would be dismissed. Fortunately, the National Association for the Advancement of Indigenous People (NAAIP) filed on behalf of their members by December 28, 2014. The members of FANA are members of the NAAIP and as such, have standing to file their claims.

Unity

The formation of FANA itself in December, 2015 was historic in that it was the first time these first contact tribes had formed a confederation to support each other. The members present considered the formation of FANA to be a joyful event because the history of the colonial occupation of America is rife with historically documented instances where European colonists actively encouraged division between tribes in a “divide and conquer” strategy, to the detriment of the tribes and the colonists themselves, spurring centuries of strife, warfare, and misery. The indigenous leaders filing the torts yesterday expressed optimism that this would be a new, positive, way forward.

Sagamore William Winds of Thunder Guy, whose family figures prominently in the history of New England, and the Revolutionary War due to Massasoit Ousamequin, the father of King Philip/Metacom, as well as Simeon Simons, is hopeful that these new, historic alliances and the delivery of long-awaited justice will allow his Nation and the other tribes of FANA to achieve respect and self-sufficiency.  As the first male Chief in hundreds of years due to the routine genocide of male descendants in his bloodline, it was particularly poignant to witness his reaction to finally filing his claim on behalf of his Nation and so many generations of his family.

Pomham Sachem Neesu Wushuwunoag of the Mashapaug stated “The overall goal is to restore peace, harmony, and balance between the colonial and federal powers of the US Government and the Nations that originally gave them permission to populate these lands.”

Mascus Sachem Quenikom Pau Muckquashim of the Usquepaug was also moved by the occasion and explained that the formation of FANA was a “spiritual movement” to foster understanding “based on love and respect” to achieve a peaceful future for the next seven generations of all people.

The day also included celebrating a historic treaty between their Mashapaug and Usquepaug tribes which resulted in the formation of the Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation and the Usquepaug tribe induction into FANA which was witnessed by the other FANA members.

Chief Yonaguska Holloway of the Sand Hill Band of Lenape and Cherokee Indians described the formation of FANA as an “awakening” and that the world needed the guidance now of indigenous people who have traditionally lived in a sustainable way.  He was inspired that the tribes could now help each other move forward together. He was also grateful that the NAAIP, led by Hemoc Xelup of the Nehantick-Nahaganset Nation, helped fill in the gap to pull everyone together.

The participants believe that the claims may result in final settlements that will perhaps bring closure to the painful history of the United States and these First Contact Indigenous tribes.

For the tribes of FANA and the NAAIP, the goal is not to be wards of the United States under control of the BIA, but instead, to be self-sufficient sovereign nations capable of negotiating with the US Government and other World Nations as equals, charting their own future, and creating a more peaceful, sustainable, environmentally respectful world for future generations.

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The Quapaw first encountered Europeans in 1541, when they met the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. He led an expedition that came across their chief town, between the Mississippi River and a lake on the Arkansas (west) side, apparently in present-day Phillips County. His party describe the village as strongly palisaded and nearly surrounded by a ditch. Archaeological remains and local conditions bear out the description. He recorded the people as the Capaha or Pacaha.

Pacaha was a Native American tribe encountered in 1541 by the Hernando de Soto expedition. This tribe inhabited fortified villages in what is today the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Arkansas.

The tribe takes its name from the chieftain Pacaha (born in early 16th century), who ruled the tribe from its primary village on the Mississippi River, which was thought to be located in present-day Crittenden County, Arkansas nearTurrell. The site, part of the Nodena Phase, is known to archaeologists as "The Bradley Site".[1] Information about Chief Pacaha and his people comes from journals made during the expedition of Hernando De Soto in 1541. The de Soto expedition stayed at Pacaha's village for approximately 40 days.

The first encounter was reported as hostile, but the parties arranged peace. The town was described as having a population of several thousand. The Quapaw did not have Europeans enter their territory again for more than 130 years. In 1673, the Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette accompanied the French commander Louis Jolliet in making his noted voyage down the Mississippi. He reportedly went to the villages of the Akansea, who gave him warm welcome and listened with attention to his sermons, while he stayed with them a few days. In 1682La Salle passed by their villages, then five in number, of which one was on the east bank of the Mississippi. The Recollect father, Zenobius Membré, accompanying La Salle, planted a cross and attempted to give the American Indians some idea of the Christians' God.

The commander negotiated a peace with the tribe and formally "claimed" the territory for France. The Quapaw were uniformly kind and friendly toward the French. In spite of frequent shiftings, the Quapaw villages in this early period were generally reported as four in number. They corresponded in name and population to four sub-tribes still existing, viz. Ugahpahti, Uzutiuhi, Tiwadimañ, and Tañwañzhita, or, under their French transliterations: Kappa, Ossoteoue, Touriman, and Tonginga.

In 1686 the French commander Henri de Tonti built a post on the Arkansas River, near its mouth, that later was known as the Arkansas Post. This began European occupation of the Quapaw country. Tonti arranged also for a resident Jesuit missionary, but apparently without result. About 1697 a smallpox epidemic killed the greater part of the women and children of two villages. In 1727 the Jesuits, from their house in New Orleans, again took up the missionary work. In 1729 the Quapaw allied with the French against the Natchez, resulting in the practical extermination of the Natchez.

The French relocated the Arkansas Post upriver, trying to avoid flooding. After losing to the British in the Seven Years' War, France ceded its North American territories to Britain. This nation exchanged territory with Spain, which took over "control" of Arkansas and other former French territory west of the Mississippi River. It built new forts to protect its valued trading post with the Quapaw.

19th century[edit]

Shortly after the United States acquired the territory in 1803 by the Louisiana Purchase, it recorded the Quapaw as living in three villages on the south side of the Arkansas River about 12 miles (19 km) above Arkansas Post. In 1818, they made their first treaty with the US government, ceding all claims from the Red River to beyond the Arkansas and east of the Mississippi.

They kept a considerable tract between the Arkansas and the Saline, in the southeastern part of the state. Under continued US pressure, in 1824 they ceded this also, excepting 80 acres (320,000 m2) occupied by the chief Saracen (Sarrasin) below Pine Bluff. They expected to incorporate with the Caddo of Louisiana, but were refused permission. Successive floods in the Caddo country near the Red River pushed many toward starvation, and they wandered back to their old homes.

In 1834, under another treaty, the Quapaw were removed from the Mississippi valley areas to their present location in the northeast corner of Oklahoma, then Indian Territory.

Sarrasin (alternate spelling Saracen), their last chief before the removal, was a Roman Catholic and friend of the Lazarist missionaries (Congregation of the Missions), who had arrived in 1818. He died about 1830 and is buried adjoining St. Joseph's Church, Pine Bluff, where a memorial window preserves his name. The pioneer Lazarist missionary among the Quapaw was Rev. John M. Odin, who later served as the Archbishop of New Orleans.

In 1824 the Jesuits of Maryland, under Father Charles Van Quickenborne, took up work among the native and immigrant tribes of present-day Kansas and Oklahoma. In 1846 the Mission of St. Francis was established among the Osage, on Neosho River, by Fathers John Shoenmakers and John Bax, who extended their services to the Quapaw for some years. The Quapaw together with the associated remnant tribes, the MiamiSenecaWyandot and Ottawa, were served from the Mission of "Saint Mary of the Quapaws", at Quapaw, Oklahoma. Historians estimated their number at European encounter as 5000. The Catholic Encyclopedia noted the people had suffered from high fatalities due to epidemics, wars, removals, and social disruption. It documented their numbers as 3200 in 1687, 1600 in 1750, 476 in 1843, and 307 in 1910, including all mixed bloods.

Peter Clabber, Principal Chief of Quapaws, 1905

Kinship, religion and culture[edit]

Besides the four established divisions already noted, the Quapaw have the clan system, with a number of gentesPolygamy was practiced, but was not common. Like their relatives, the Osage, Quapaws had a complex religion. They were agricultural. Their towns werepalisaded. Their town houses, or public structures, constructed with timbers dovetailed together and bark roofs, were commonly erected upon large manmade mounds to guard against the frequent flooding. Their ordinary houses were rectangular and long enough to accommodate several families.

The Quapaw dug large ditches, and constructed fish weirs to manage their food supply. They excelled in pottery and in the painting of hide for bed covers and other purposes. The dead were buried in the ground, sometimes in mounds or in the clay floors of their houses, being frequently strapped to a stake in a sitting position and then covered with earth. They were friendly to the Europeans, while warring with the Chickasaw and other Southeastern tribes over resources and trade.

The Washitaw- OSAGE Nation

Descendants of indigenous peoples who had been in North America for thousands of years, the Osage traditions and linguistic data show they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories (common to other Dhegian-Siouan tribes, such as thePoncaOmahaKaw and Quapaw), they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided in whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars.[6] Some believe that they started migrating west as early as 1200 CE, and attribute long years of war with invading Iroquois to helping form their style of government. West of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was also driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.[7]

Eventually the Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands, likely splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri. They were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse (often acquired in raids on other tribes.) The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French.[6] They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years.[7] They lived near the Missouri River. Together with the KiowaComanche, and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma. They also lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas.

The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west. They also hunted deer, rabbit, and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of cornsquash, and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food. They also harvested nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had practices that had elements of cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples.

Early French encounters[edit]

In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza, Osage, andPawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas.[8]

Shonka Sabe (Black Dog). Chief of the Hunkah division of the Osage tribe. Painted in 1834 by George Catlin

The Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh (Heavy Eyebrows) because of their facial hair.[9] As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against the Illiniwek during the early 18th century.

The first half of the 1720s was a time of more interaction between the Osage and French. Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmontfounded Fort Orleans in their territory; it was the first European fort on the Missouri River. Jesuit missionaries were assigned to French forts and established missions to the Osage, learning their language. In 1724, the Osage allied with the French rather than the Spanish in their fight for control of the Mississippi region.

In 1725, Bourgmont led a delegation of Osage and other tribal chiefs to Paris. The Native Americans were shown the wonders and power of France, including a visit to VersaillesChâteau de Marly and Fontainebleau. They hunted with Louis XV in the royal forest and saw anopera. After the French and Indian War (the North American front of the Seven Years' War in Europe), France was defeated by Great Britain and ceded its lands east of the Mississippi River to that nation. It made a separate deal with Spain, which took nominal control of much of the Illinois Country west of the great river.

By the late 18th century, the Osage did extensive business with the French Creole fur trader René Auguste Chouteau based in St. Louis; it was part of territory under nominal Spanish control after the Seven Years' War. But the French colonists were the true power in St. Louis and other settlements along the Mississippi, building their wealth on the fur trade. In return for the Chouteau brothers' building a fort in the village of the Great Osage 350 miles (560 km) southwest of St. Louis, the Spanish regional government gave the Chouteaus a six-year monopoly on trade (1794–1802). The Chouteaus named the post Fort Carondelet after the Spanish governor. The Osage were pleased to have a fur trading post nearby, as it gave them access to manufactured goods and increased their prestige among the tribes.[10]

Osage warrior painted by George Catlin

Lewis and Clark reported in 1804 that the peoples were the Great Osage on the Osage River, the Little Osage upstream, and the Arkansas band on the Verdigris River, a tributary of the Arkansas River.[11] The tribe then numbered some 5,500.

The Osage and Quapaw suffered extensive losses due to smallpox in 1801-1802. Historians estimate up to 2,000 Osage died in the epidemic.[12]

In 1804 after the United States made the Louisiana Purchase, the wealthy French fur trader Jean Pierre Chouteau, a half-brother of René Auguste Chouteau, was appointed as the US Indian agent assigned to the Osage. In 1809 he founded the Saint Louis Missouri Fur Company with his son Auguste Pierre Chouteau and other prominent men of St. Louis, most of whom were of French-Creole descent. Having lived with the Osage for many years and learned their language, Jean Pierre Chouteau traded with them and made his home at present-day Salina, Oklahoma, in the western part of their territory.

Osage wars with other tribes[edit]

The Choctaw chief Pushmataha had a notable career as a warrior against the Osage tribe. When the Western Cherokee (Arkansas Cherokee), who, like Sequoyah, voluntarily removed from the Southeast to the Arkansas River valley in the early 19th century, they immediately clashed with the Osage, as the Choctaw were invading their hunting lands. After the 1817 massacre known as the "Battle of Claremore Mound," in which 30 Osage warriors were killed, their horses and trade-worthy goods taken, the Osage ceded these lands to the federal government in the treaty referred to as Lovely's Purchase. The US had attacked them with a force of 600, including US soldiers and warriors from the Choctaw and Cherokee nations.

Despite its proclaimed goal of creating peace among Native peoples, the United States delivered these lands to the Cherokee aggressors, over the protest of Osage who had hoped the land would serve as a buffer zone between them and the Cherokee invaders. The Osage sought to preserve hunting rights even if other tribes were allowed to settle there.[13]

War on the plains. Comanche (right) trying to lance Osage warrior. Painting byGeorge Catlin, 1834

In 1833, the Osage clashed with the Kiowa near the Wichita Mountains in modern-day south-central Oklahoma, in an incident known as the Cutthroat Gap Massacre. The Osage cut off the heads of their victims and arranged them in rows of brass cooking buckets. Not a single Osage died in this attack. Later, Kiowa warriors, allied with the Comanche, raided the Osage and others. In 1836, the Osage prohibited the Kickapoo from entering their Missouri reservation, pushing them back to ceded lands in Illinois.

In 1867, because of their scouting expertise, excellent terrain knowledge, and military prowess, Osage scouts were used by Lt. Col.George Armstrong Custer in his campaign against Chief Black Kettle and his band of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in western Oklahoma near the Washita River. Custer and his soldiers took Chief Black Kettle and his band by surprise in the early morning. They killed Chief Black Kettle, and there were additional deaths on both sides. This incident became known as the Battle of Washita River.

U.S. Interaction with Osage[edit]

The Osage began treaty-making with the United States in 1808, by the Osage Treaty and their first cession of lands in Missouri.[14] This treaty created a buffer line between the Osage and new European-American settlers in the Missouri Territory, and ceded 52,480,000 acres (212,400 km2) to the federal government. This 1808 treaty also provided for approval by the U.S. President for future land sales and cessions.[15] In 1808 the Osage moved from their homelands on the Osage River to western Missouri. The major part of the tribe had moved to the Three-Forks region of what would become Oklahoma soon after the arrival of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. This part of the tribe did not participate in negotiations for the treaty of 1808, but their assent was obtained in 1809.

The Nov. 10, 1808 Treaty of Ft. Osage explicitly states the U.S. would "protect" the Osage tribe "from the insults and injuries of other tribes of Indians, situated near the settlements of white people....".[16] However, in a letter dated Aug. 21, 1808 sent from President Thomas Jefferson to Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson informs Lewis that he approves of the measures Lewis has taken in regards to isolating friendly Osages from those deemed as hostile and says that "we may go further, & as the principal obstacle to the Indians acting in large bodies is the want of provisions, we might supply that want, & ammunition also if they need it." Lewis anticipated the US would go to war with the Osage, citing their raids on eastern Natives and European-American settlements. However, the U.S. lacked sufficient military strength to coerce segments of the Osage into ceasing their raids. It decided to supply the warriors of other tribes with weapons and ammunition, provided they attack the Osage to the point they "cut them off completely or drive them from their country." [17]

This strategy appeared to be taking place prior to 1808, as in Sept. 1807, Lewis had persuaded the Potawatomie and Sac and Fox to attack an Osage village; three Osage warriors were killed. The Osage blamed the Americans for the attack, but instead of retaliation they opted to attend a buffalo hunt after a "skillful trader" intervened.[18]

The Osage occupied land in present-day Kansas and in Indian Territory which in the 1830s the US government later promised to the Cherokee and four other southeastern tribes under Indian Removal. When the Cherokee arrived to find that the land was already occupied, many conflicts arose with the Osage over territory and resources.

Between the first treaty with the US and 1825, the Osages ceded their traditional lands across Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma in the treaties of 1818 and 1825. In exchange they were to receive reservation lands and supplies to help them adapt to farming and a more settled culture.

They were first moved onto a southeast Kansas reservation called the Osage Diminished Reserve, where the city of Independence later developed. The first Osage reservation was a 50 by 150-mile (240 km) strip. Following the Louisiana Purchase, the United Foreign Missionary Society sent clergy to them, supported by the Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed and Associated Reformed churches. They established the Union, Harmony, and Hopefield missions.[19] Their cultural differences often caused conflicts, as the Protestants tried to impose their culture.[20] The Catholic Church also sent missionaries; the Osage were attracted to their sense of mystery and ritual, but felt the Catholics did not fully embrace the Osage sense of the spiritual incarnate in nature.[19]

During this period in Kansas, the tribe suffered from the widespread smallpox pandemic of 1837-1838, which caused devastating losses among Native Americans from Canada to New Mexico.[21] All clergy except the Catholics left the Osage during the crisis. Most survivors of the epidemic had received vaccinations against the disease.[22] The Osage believed that the loyalty of Catholic priests, who stayed with them and also died in the epidemic, created a special covenant between the tribe and the Catholic Church, but they did not convert in great number. Honoring this special relationship, as well as Catholic sisters who taught their children, in 2014 numerous Osage elders went to St. Louis to celebrate the city's 250th anniversary of the European founding. They participated in a mass partially conducted in Osage at St. Francis Xavier (College) Catholic Church of St. Louis University on April 2, 2014, as part of planned activities.[23] One of the con-celebrants was Todd Nance, the first Osage ordained as a Catholic priest.

In 1843 the Osage asked the federal government to send "Black Robes", Jesuit missionaries to educate their children; the Osage considered the Jesuits better able to work with their culture than the Protestant missionaries. The Jesuits also established a girls' school operated by the Sisters of Loretto from Kentucky.[20] During a 35-year period, most of the missionaries were new recruits from Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Belgium. They taught, established more than 100 mission stations, built churches, and created the longest-running school system in Kansas.[24]

White squatters continued to be a frequent problem for the Osage, but they recovered from population losses, regaining a total of 5,000 members by 1850.[25] The Kansas-Nebraska Act resulted in numerous settlers arriving in Kansas; both abolitionists and pro-slavery groups were represented among those trying to establish residency and affect whether or not the territory would have slavery. The Osage lands became overrun with European-American settlers. In 1855, the Osage suffered another epidemic of smallpox, because a generation had grown up without getting vaccinated.[22]

Subsequent treaties and laws through the 1860s further reduced the lands of the Osage in Kansas. During the years of the Civil War, they were buffeted by both sides, as they were located between Union forts in the North, and Confederate forces and allies to the South. While the Osage tried to stay neutral, both sides raided their territory, taking horses and food stores.[26] They struggled simply to survive through famine and the war. During the war, many Caddoan and Creek refugees from Indian territory came to Osage country in Kansas, which further strained their resources.

Although the Osage favored the Union by a five to one ratio, they made a treaty with the Confederacy to try to buy some peace. As a result, after the war, they were forced to make a new treaty with the US during Reconstruction, and give up more territory in Kansas to European-American settlers. By a treaty in 1865, they ceded another 4 million acres (16,000 km2) to the United States and were facing the issue of eventual removal from Kansas to Indian Territory.[27]

Removal to Indian Territory[edit]

Following the American Civil War and victory of the Union, the Drum Creek Treaty was passed by Congress July 15, 1870 during the Reconstruction era and ratified by the Osage at a meeting in Montgomery County, Kansas, on September 10, 1870. It provided that the remainder of Osage land in Kansas be sold and the proceeds used to relocate the tribe to Indian Territory in the Cherokee Outlet. By their delays in agreeing to removal, the Osage benefited by the change in administration; they sold their lands to the "peace" administration of President Ulysses S. Grant, for which they received more money: $1.25 an acre rather than the 19 cents previously offered to them by the US.

The Osage were one of the few American Indian nations to buy their own reservation, and they retained more rights to the land and sovereignty as a result.[28] The reservation, of 1,470,000 acres (5,900 km2),[29] is coterminous with present-day Osage County, Oklahoma in the north-central portion of the state between Tulsa, Oklahoma and Ponca City, Oklahoma.

Oklahoma and Indian Territory map, circa 1890s, created using Census Bureau Data.

The Osage established three towns, which were the center of their three major bands at the time of removal:PawhuskaHominy and Fairfax. They continued their relationship with the Catholic Church, which established schools operated by two orders of nuns, as well as mission churches.

It was many years before the Osage recovered from the hardship suffered during their last years in Kansas and their early years on the reservation in Indian Territory. Although they had money held by the US government from the sale of their land, for nearly five years during the depression of the 1870s, the Osage did not receive their full annuity in cash; like other Native Americans, they suffered through the reduced rations that the government supplied during this period. Some people starved. Many adjustments had to be made to their new way of life.[30]

During this time, Indian Office reports showed nearly a 50 percent decline in the Osage population.[30] This resulted from the failure of the US government to provide adequate medical supplies, food and clothing. The people suffered greatly during the winters. While the government failed to supply them, outlaws often smuggled whiskey to the Osage as well as the Pawnee.

In 1879, an Osage delegation went to Washington, DC and gained agreement for payment of all their annuities in cash; they were the first Native American nation to gain this. They gradually began to build up their tribe again, but suffered encroachment by white outlaws, vagabonds, and thieves.[31]

Four Osage men with U.S presidentCalvin Coolidge after signing the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, which granted Indians across the country full citizenship for the first time.

By the start of the 20th century, the federal government and progressives were continuing to press for Native American assimilation, believing this was the best policy for them. Congress passed the Curtis Act and Dawes Act, legislation requiring the dismantling of other reservations. They allotted communal lands in 160-acre portions to individual households, declaring the remainder as "surplus" and selling it to non-natives.

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 Why Tribes Exist Today in the United States

What are Indian treaty rights?
From 1778 to 1871, the United States’ relations with individual American Indian nations indigenous to what is now the U.S. were defined and conducted largely through the treaty-making process. These “contracts among nations” recognized and established unique sets of rights, benefits, and conditions for the treaty-making tribes who agreed to cede of millions of acres of their homelands to the United States and accept its protection.  Like other treaty obligations of the United States, Indian treaties are considered to be “the supreme law of the land,” and they are the foundation upon which federal Indian law and the federal Indian trust relationship is based.

What is the legal status of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes? 
Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution vests Congress, and by extension the Executive and Judicial branches of our government, with the authority to engage in relations with the tribes, thereby firmly placing tribes within the constitutional fabric of our nation. When the governmental authority of tribes was first challenged in the 1830's, U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall articulated the fundamental principle that has guided the evolution of federal Indian law to the present: That tribes possess a nationhood status and retain inherent powers of self-government.

What is the federal Indian trust responsibility?
The federal Indian trust responsibility is a legal obligation under which the United States “has charged itself with moral obligations of the highest responsibility and trust” toward Indian tribes (Seminole Nation v. United States, 1942). This obligation was first discussed by Chief Justice John Marshall in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Over the years, the trust doctrine has been at the center of numerous other Supreme Court cases, thus making it one of the most important principles in federal Indian law.

The federal Indian trust responsibility is also a legally enforceable fiduciary obligation on the part of the United States to protect tribal treaty rights, lands, assets, and resources, as well as a duty to carry out the mandates of federal law with respect to American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages. In several cases discussing the trust responsibility, the Supreme Court has used language suggesting that it entails legal duties, moral obligations, and the fulfillment of understandings and expectations that have arisen over the entire course of the relationship between the United States and the federally recognized tribes.

What is a federally recognized tribe?
federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation, and is eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Furthermore, federally recognized tribes are recognized as possessing certain inherent rights of self-government (i.e., tribal sovereignty) and are entitled to receive certain federal benefits, services, and protections because of their special relationship with the United States.  At present, there are 567 federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages.

How is federal recognition status conferred?
Historically, most of today’s federally recognized tribes received federal recognition status through treaties, acts of Congress, presidential executive orders or other federal administrative actions, or federal court decisions.

In 1978, the Interior Department issued regulations governing the Federal Acknowledgment Process (FAP) to handle requests for federal recognition from Indian groups whose character and history varied widely in a uniform manner.  These regulations – 25 C.F.R. Part 83 – were revised in 1994 and are still in effect.

Also in 1994, Congress enacted Public Law 103-454, the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act (108 Stat. 4791, 4792), which formally established three ways in which an Indian group may become federally recognized:

  • By Act of Congress,
  • By the administrative procedures under 25 C.F.R. Part 83, or
  • By decision of a United States court.

However, a tribe whose relationship with the United States has been expressly terminated by Congress may not use the Federal Acknowledgment Process.  Only Congress can restore federal recognition to a “terminated” tribe.

The Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act also requires the Secretary of the Interior to publish annually a list of the federally recognized tribes in the Federal Register

What does tribal sovereignty mean to American Indians and Alaska Natives?
When tribes first encountered Europeans, they were a power to be reckoned with because the combined American Indian and Alaska Native population dominated the North American continent.  Their strength in numbers, the control they exerted over the natural resources within and between their territories, and the European practice of establishing relations with countries other than themselves and the recognition of tribal property rights led to tribes being seen by exploring foreign powers as sovereign nations, who treatied with them accordingly.

However, as the foreign powers’ presence expanded and with the establishment and growth of the United States, tribal populations dropped dramatically and tribal sovereignty gradually eroded.  While tribal sovereignty is limited today by the United States under treaties, acts of Congress, Executive Orders, federal administrative agreements and court decisions, what remains is nevertheless protected and maintained by the federally recognized tribes against further encroachment by other sovereigns, such as the states.  Tribal sovereignty ensures that any decisions about the tribes with regard to their property and citizens are made with their participation and consent.

What is a federal Indian reservation?
In the United States there are three types of reserved federal lands:  military, public, and Indian.  A federal Indian reservation is an area of land reserved for a tribe or tribes under treaty or other agreement with the United States, executive order, or federal statute or administrative action as permanent tribal homelands, and where the federal government holds title to the land in trust on behalf of the tribe.

Approximately 56.2 million acres are held in trust by the United States for various Indian tribes and individuals.  There are approximately 326 Indian land areas in the U.S. administered as federal Indian reservations (i.e., reservations, pueblos, rancherias, missions, villages, communities, etc.).  The largest is the 16 million-acre Navajo Nation Reservation located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.  The smallest is a 1.32-acre parcel in California where the Pit River Tribe’s cemetery is located.  Many of the smaller reservations are less than 1,000 acres.

Some reservations are the remnants of a tribe’s original land base.  Others were created by the federal government for the resettling of Indian people forcibly relocated from their homelands.  Not every federally recognized tribe has a reservation.  Federal Indian reservations are generally exempt from state jurisdiction, including taxation, except when Congress specifically authorizes such jurisdiction.

Are there any federal Indian reservations in Alaska?
Yes, one.  It is the Metlakatla Indian Community of the Annette Island Reserve in southeastern Alaska.

Are there other types of “Indian lands”?
Yes.  Other types of Indian lands are:

  • Allotted lands, which are remnants of reservations broken up during the federal allotment period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.  Although the practice of allotting lands had begun in the eighteenth century, it was put to greater use after the Civil War.  By 1885, over 11,000 patents had been issued to individual Indians under various treaties and laws.  Starting with the General Allotment Act in 1887 (also known as the Dawes Act) until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, allotments were conveyed to members of affected tribes and held in trust by the federal government.  As allotments were taken out of trust, they became subject to state and local taxation, which resulted in thousands of acres passing out of Indian hands.  Today, 10,059,290.74 million acres of individually owned lands are still held in trust for allotees and their heirs.
  • Restricted status, also known as restricted fee, where title to the land is held by an individual Indian person or a tribe and which can only be alienated or encumbered by the owner with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior because of limitations contained in the conveyance instrument pursuant to federal law.
  • State Indian reservations, which are lands held in trust by a state for an Indian tribe.  With state trust lands title is held by the state on behalf of the tribe and the lands are not subject to state property tax.  They are subject to state law, however.  State trust lands stem from treaties or other agreements between a tribal group and the state government or the colonial government(s) that preceded it.

American Indian and Alaska Native tribes, businesses, and individuals may also own land as private property.  In such cases, they are subject to state and local laws, regulations, codes, and taxation.

Does the United States still make treaties with Indian tribes?
No.  Congress ended treaty-making with Indian tribes in 1871.  Since then, relations with Indian groups have been formalized and/or codified by Congressional acts, Executive Orders, and Executive Agreements.  Between 1778, when the first treaty was made with the Delawares, to 1871, when Congress ended the treaty-making period, the United States Senate ratified 370 treaties.  At least 45 others were negotiated with tribes but were never ratified by the Senate.
The treaties that were made often contain commitments that have either been fulfilled or subsequently superseded by Congressional legislation.

In addition, American Indians and Alaska Natives can access education, health, welfare, and other social service programs available to all citizens, if they are eligible.  Even if a tribe does not have a treaty with the United States, or has treaties that were negotiated but not ratified, its members may still receive services from the BIA or other federal programs, if eligible.

The specifics of particular treaties signed by government negotiators with Indian tribes are contained in one volume (Vol. II) of the publication, Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties: 1778-1883, compiled, annotated, and edited by Charles J. Kappler.  Published by the United States Government Printing Office in 1904, it is now out of print, but can be found in most large law libraries and on the Internet athttp://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler. The treaty volume has also been published privately under the title, “Indian Treaties: 1778-1883.”

Originals of all the treaties are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration of the General Services Administration.  For more information on how to obtain copies or for more information about the treaties visit NARA’s website at www.nara.gov .

II.      The Nature of Federal-Tribal and State-Tribal Relations

What is the relationship between the tribes and the United States?
The relationship between federally recognized tribes and the United States is one between sovereigns, i.e., between a government and a government. This “government-to-government” principle, which is grounded in the United States Constitution, has helped to shape the long history of relations between the federal government and these tribal nations.

What is the relationship between the tribes and the individual states?
Because the Constitution vested the Legislative Branch with plenary power over Indian Affairs, states have no authority over tribal governments unless expressly authorized by Congress. While federally recognized tribes generally are not subordinate to states, they can have a government-to-government relationship with these other sovereigns, as well. 

Furthermore, federally recognized tribes possess both the right and the authority to regulate activities on their lands independently from state government control.  They can enact and enforce stricter or more lenient laws and regulations than those of the surrounding or neighboring state(s) wherein they are located. Yet, tribes frequently collaborate and cooperate with states through compacts or other agreements on matters of mutual concern such as environmental protection and law enforcement.

What is Public Law 280 and where does it apply?
In 1953, Congress enacted Public Law 83-280 (67 Stat. 588) to grant certain states criminal jurisdiction over American Indians on reservations and to allow civil litigation that had come under tribal or federal court jurisdiction to be handled by state courts.  However, the law did not grant states regulatory power over tribes or lands held in trust by the United States; federally guaranteed tribal hunting, trapping, and fishing rights; basic tribal governmental functions such as enrollment and domestic relations; nor the power to impose state taxes.  These states also may not regulate matters such as environmental control, land use, gambling, and licenses on federal Indian reservations.

The states required by Public Law 280 to assume civil and criminal jurisdiction over federal Indian lands were Alaska (except the Metlakatla Indian Community on the Annette Island Reserve, which maintains criminal jurisdiction), California, Minnesota (except the Red Lake Reservation), Nebraska, Oregon (except the Warm Springs Reservation), and Wisconsin.  In addition, the federal government gave up all special criminal jurisdiction in these states over Indian offenders and victims.  The states that elected to assume full or partial jurisdiction were Arizona (1967), Florida (1961), Idaho (1963, subject to tribal consent), Iowa (1967), Montana (1963), Nevada (1955), North Dakota (1963, subject to tribal consent), South Dakota (1957-1961), Utah (1971), and Washington (1957-1963).

Subsequent acts of Congress, court decisions, and state actions to retrocede jurisdiction back to the Federal Government have muted some of the effects of the 1953 law, and strengthened the tribes’ jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters on their reservations.

III.    Tribal Government: Powers, Rights, and Authorities

What are inherent powers of tribal self-government?
Tribes possess all powers of self-government except those relinquished under treaty with the United States, those that Congress has expressly extinguished, and those that federal courts have ruled are subject to existing federal law or are inconsistent with overriding national policies.  Tribes, therefore, possess the right to form their own governments; to make and enforce laws, both civil and criminal; to tax; to establish and determine membership (i.e., tribal citizenship); to license and regulate activities within their jurisdiction; to zone; and to exclude persons from tribal lands.

Limitations on inherent tribal powers of self-government are few, but do include the same limitations applicable to states, e.g., neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or print and issue currency.

How do tribal members govern themselves?
For thousands of years, American Indians and Alaska Natives governed themselves through tribal laws, cultural traditions, religious customs, and kinship systems, such as clans and societies.  Today, most modern tribal governments are organized democratically, that is, with an elected leadership.

Through their tribal governments, tribal members generally define conditions of membership, regulate domestic relations of members, prescribe rules of inheritance for reservation property not in trust status, levy taxes, regulate property under tribal jurisdiction, control the conduct of members by tribal ordinances, and administer justice.  They also continue to utilize their traditional systems of self-government whenever and wherever possible.

How are tribal governments organized?
Most federally recognized tribes are organized under the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) of 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.), including a number of Alaska Native villages, which adopted formal governing documents under the provisions of a 1936 amendment to the IRA.  The passage in 1971 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601), however, provided for the creation of regional and village corporations under state law to manage the money and lands granted to Alaska Natives by the act.  The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936 provided for the organization of Indian tribes within the State of Oklahoma.

Many tribes have constitutions, others operate under articles of association or other bodies of law, and some have found a way to combine their traditional systems of government within a modern governmental framework.  Some do not operate under any of these acts, but are nevertheless organized under documents approved by the Secretary of the Interior.  Contemporary tribal governments are usually, but not always, modeled upon the federal system of the three branches:  Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.

The chief executive of a tribe is usually called a chairman, chairwoman or chairperson, but may also be called a principal chief, governor, president, mayor, spokesperson, or representative.  The chief executive presides over the tribe’s legislative body and executive branch.  In modern tribal government, the chief executive and members of the tribal council or business committee are almost always elected.

A tribe’s legislative body is usually called a tribal council, a village council, or a tribal business committee.  It is comprised of tribal members who are elected by eligible tribal voters.  In some tribes, the council is comprised of all eligible adult tribal members.  Although some tribes require a referendum by their members to enact laws, a tribal council generally acts as any other legislative body in creating laws, authorizing expenditures, appropriating funds, and conducting oversight of activities carried out by the chief executive and tribal government employees.  An elected tribal council and chief executive, recognized as such by the Secretary of the Interior, have authority to speak and act for the tribe as a whole, and to represent it in negotiations with federal, state, and local governments.

Furthermore, many tribes have established, or are building, their judicial branch – the tribal court system – to interpret tribal laws and administer justice.

What is the jurisdiction of tribal courts?
Generally, tribal courts have civil jurisdiction over Indians and non-Indians who either reside or do business on federal Indian reservations. They also have criminal jurisdiction over violations of tribal laws committed by tribal members residing or doing business on the reservation.

Under 25 C.F.R. Part 115, tribal courts are responsible for appointing guardians, determining competency, awarding child support from Individual Indian Money (IIM) accounts, determining paternity, sanctioning adoptions, marriages, and divorces, making presumptions of death, and adjudicating claims involving trust assets.  There are approximately 225 tribes that contract or compact with the BIA to perform the Secretary’s adjudicatory function and 23 Courts of Indian Offenses (also known as CFR courts) which exercise federal authority.  The Indian Tribal Justice Act of 1993 (P.L. 103-176, 107 Stat. 2005) supports tribal courts in becoming, along with federal and state courts, well-established dispensers of justice in Indian Country.

What is meant by tribal self-determination and self-governance?
Congress has recognized the right of tribes to have a greater say over the development and implementation of federal programs and policies that directly impact on them and their tribal members.  It did so by enacting two major pieces of legislation that together embody the important concepts of tribal self-determination and self-governance:  The Indian Self-determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975, as amended (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.) and the Tribal Self-Governance Act of 1994 (25 U.S.C. 458aa et seq.).  Through these laws, Congress accorded tribal governments the authority to administer themselves the programs and services usually administered by the BIA for their tribal members.  It also upheld the principle of tribal consultation, whereby the federal government consults with tribes on federal actions, policies, rules or regulations that will directly affect them.

IV.    Our Nation’s American Indian and Alaska Native Citizens

Who is an American Indian or Alaska Native?
As a general rule, an American Indian or Alaska Native person is someone who has blood degree from and is recognized as such by a federally recognized tribe or village (as an enrolled tribal member) and/or the United States.  Of course, blood quantum (the degree of American Indian or Alaska Native blood from a federally recognized tribe or village that a person possesses) is not the only means by which a person is considered to be an American Indian or Alaska Native.  Other factors, such as a person’s knowledge of his or her tribe’s culture, history, language, religion, familial kinships, and how strongly a person identifies himself or herself as American Indian or Alaska Native, are also important.  In fact, there is no single federal or tribal criterion or standard that establishes a person's identity as American Indian or Alaska Native.

There are major differences, however, when the term “American Indian” is used in an ethnological sense versus its use in a political/legal sense.  The rights, protections, and services provided by the United States to individual American Indians and Alaska Natives flow not from a person's identity as such in an ethnological sense, but because he or she is a member of a federally recognized tribe.  That is, a tribe that has a government-to-government relationship and a special trust relationship with the United States. These special trust and government-to-government relationships entail certain legally enforceable obligations and responsibilities on the part of the United States to persons who are enrolled members of such tribes.  Eligibility requirements for federal services will differ from program to program. Likewise, the eligibility criteria for enrollment (or membership) in a tribe will differ from tribe to tribe.

How large is the national American Indian and Alaska Native population?
According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the estimated population of American Indians and Alaska Natives, including those of more than one race, as of July 1, 2007, was 4.5 million, or 1.5 per cent of the total U.S. population.  In the BIA’s 2005 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report, the latest available, the total number of enrolled members of the (then) 561 federally recognized tribes was shown to be less than half the Census number, or 1,978,099.

Why are American Indians and Alaska Natives also referred to as Native Americans?
When referring to American Indian or Alaska Native persons, it is still appropriate to use the terms “American Indian” and “Alaska Native.” These terms denote the cultural and historical distinctions between persons belonging to the indigenous tribes of the continental United States (American Indians) and the indigenous tribes and villages of Alaska (Alaska Natives, i.e., Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians).  They also refer specifically to persons eligible for benefits and services funded or directly provided by the BIA.

The term “Native American” came into broad usage in the 1970's as an alternative to “American Indian.”  Since that time, however, it has been gradually expanded within the public lexicon to include all Native peoples of the United States and its trust territories, i.e., American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, and American Samoans, as well as persons from Canada First Nations and indigenous communities in Mexico and Central and South America who are U.S. residents.

Are American Indians and Alaska Natives wards of the Federal Government?
No.  The Federal Government is a trustee of Indian property, not a guardian of all American Indians and Alaska Natives.  Although the Secretary of the Interior is authorized by law to protect, where necessary, the interests of minors and adult persons deemed incompetent to handle their affairs, this protection does not confer a guardian-ward relationship.

Are American Indians and Alaska Natives citizens of the United States?
Yes.  As early as 1817, U.S. citizenship had been conferred by special treaty upon specific groups of Indian people.  American citizenship was also conveyed by statutes, naturalization proceedings, and by service in the Armed Forces with an honorable discharge in World War I.  In 1924, Congress extended American citizenship to all other American Indians born within the territorial limits of the United States.  American Indians and Alaska Natives are citizens of the United States and of the individual states, counties, cities, and towns where they reside.  They can also become citizens of their tribes or villages as enrolled tribal members.

Do American Indians and Alaska Natives have the right to vote?
Yes.  American Indians and Alaska Natives have the right to vote just as all other U.S. citizens do. They can vote in presidential, congressional, state and local, and tribal elections, if eligible. And, just as the federal government and state and local governments have the sovereign right to establish voter eligibility criteria, so do tribal governments.

Do American Indians and Alaska Natives have the right to hold public office?
Yes.  American Indians and Alaska Natives have the same rights as other citizens to hold public office. Over the years, American Indian and Alaska Native men and women have held elected and appointed offices at all levels of federal, state, and local government.  Charles Curtis, a member of the Kaw Tribe of Kansas, served in both houses of Congress before holding the second highest elected office in the nation – that of Vice President of the United States under President Herbert Hoover.  American Indians and Alaska Natives also serve in state legislatures, state judicial systems, county and city governments, and on local school boards.

Do American Indians and Alaska Natives have special rights different from other citizens?
Any “special” rights held by federally recognized tribes and their members are generally based on treaties or other agreements between the tribes and the United States.  The heavy price American Indians and Alaska Natives paid to retain certain rights of self-government was to relinquish much of their land and resources to the United States.  U.S. law protects the inherent rights they did not relinquish.  Among those may be hunting and fishing rights and access to sacred sites.

Do American Indians and Alaska Natives pay taxes?
Yes. They pay the same taxes as other citizens with the following exceptions:

  • Federal income taxes are not levied on income from trust lands held for them by the U.S.
  • State income taxes are not paid on income earned on a federal Indian reservation.
  • State sales taxes are not paid by Indians on transactions made on a federal Indian reservation.
  • Local property taxes are not paid on reservation or trust land.

Do laws that apply to non-Indians also apply to Indians?
Yes.  As U.S. citizens, American Indians and Alaska Natives are generally subject to federal, state, and local laws.  On federal Indian reservations, however, only federal and tribal laws apply to members of the tribe, unless Congress provides otherwise.  In federal law, the Assimilative Crimes Act makes any violation of state criminal law a federal offense on reservations.  Most tribes now maintain tribal court systems and facilities to detain tribal members convicted of certain offenses within the boundaries of the reservation.

Do all American Indians and Alaska Natives speak a single traditional language?
No.  American Indians and Alaska Natives come from a multitude of different cultures with diverse languages, and for thousands of years used oral tradition to pass down familial and cultural information among generations of tribal members. Some tribes, even if widely scattered, belong to the same linguistic families.  Common means of communicating between tribes allowed trade routes and political alliances to flourish.  As contact between Indians and non-Indians grew, so did the necessity of learning of new languages.  Even into the 20th century, many American Indians and Alaska Natives were bi- or multilingual from learning to speak their own language and English, French, Russian, or Spanish, or even another tribal language. 

It has been reported that at the end of the 15th century over 300 American Indian and Alaska Native languages were spoken.  Today, fewer than 200 tribal languages are still viable, with some having been translated into written form.  English, however, has become the predominant language in the home, school, and workplace.  Those tribes who can still do so are working to preserve their languages and create new speakers from among their tribal populations.

Must all American Indians and Alaska Natives live on reservations?
No.  American Indians and Alaska Natives live and work anywhere in the United States (and the world) just as other citizens do.  Many leave their reservations, communities or villages for the same reasons as do other Americans who move to urban centers:  to seek education and employment.  Over one-half of the total U.S. American Indian and Alaska Native population now live away from their tribal lands.  However, most return home to visit relatives; attend family gatherings and celebrations; participate in religious, cultural, or community activities; work for their tribal governments; operate businesses; vote in tribal elections or run for tribal office; retire; or to be buried.

Do American Indians and Alaska Natives serve in the Armed Forces?
Yes.  American Indians and Alaska Natives have a long and distinguished history of serving in our nation’s Armed Forces.

During the Civil War, American Indians served on both sides of the conflict.  Among the most well-known are Brigadier General Ely S. Parker (Seneca), an aide to Union General Ulysses S. Grant who recorded the terms of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia that ended the war, and Brigadier General Stand Watie (Cherokee), the last of the Confederate generals to cease fighting after the surrender was concluded.  American Indians also fought with Theodore Roosevelt in the Spanish-American War.

During World War I over 8,000 American Indian soldiers, of whom 6,000 were volunteers, served.  Their patriotism moved Congress to pass the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.  In World War II, 25,000 American Indian and Alaska Native men and women fought on all fronts in Europe and the South Pacific earning, collectively, at least 71 Air Medals, 51 Silver Stars, 47 Bronze Stars, 34 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and two Congressional Medals of Honor.  Alaska Natives also served in the Alaska Territorial Guard.

Starting in World War I and again in World War II, the U.S. military employed a number of American Indian servicemen to use their tribal languages as a military code that could not be broken by the enemy.  These “code talkers” came from many different tribes, including Chippewa, Choctaw, Creek, Crow, Comanche, Hopi, Navajo, Seminole, and Sioux.  During World War II, the Navajos constituted the largest component within that elite group.

In the Korean Conflict, one Congressional Medal of Honor was awarded to an American Indian serviceman.  In the Vietnam War, 41,500 Indian service personnel served.  In 1990, prior to Operation Desert Storm, some 24,000 Indian men and women were in the military.  Approximately 3,000 served in the Persian Gulf with three among those killed in action.  American Indian service personnel have also served in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom).

While American Indians and Alaska Natives have the same obligations for military service as other U.S. citizens, many tribes have a strong military tradition within their cultures, and veterans are considered to be among their most honored members.

V.      The Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs, the BIA, and the BIE

Who is the Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs?
The Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs (AS-IA) has responsibility for fulfilling the Interior Department’s trust responsibilities to American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and individuals, as well as promoting the self-determination and economic well-being of the tribes and their members.  The Assistant Secretary together with the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs oversee the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE); the Office of External Affairs; the Office of Federal Acknowledgment; the Office of Regulatory Management, as well as the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and Economic Development; and the Deputy Assistant Secretary – Management.

There have been 12 assistant secretaries since the Office of the Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs was established by DOI Secretarial order in 1977.  The current Assistant Secretary - Indian Affairs is Larry Echo Hawk, an enrolled member of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, who was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 19, 2009.  The assistant secretaries for Indian Affairs are:

Forrest J. Gerard, Blackfeet (1977-1980)
Thomas W. Fredericks, Mandan-Hidatsa (1980-1981)
Kenneth L. Smith, Wasco (1981-1984)
Ross O. Swimmer, Cherokee (1985-1989)
Dr. Eddie F. Brown, Tohono O’odham-Yaqui (1989-1993)
Ada E. Deer, Menominee (1993-1997)
Kevin Gover, Pawnee (1997-2001)
Neal McCaleb, Chickasaw (2001-2002)
David W. Anderson, Lac Courte Oreilles Chippewa-Choctaw (2003-2005)
Carl J. Artman, Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin (2007-2008)
Larry Echo Hawk, Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma (2009-2012)
Kevin K. Washburn, Chickasaw Nation (2012-2016)

What is the Bureau of Indian Affairs?
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is the primary federal agency charged with carrying out the United States’ trust responsibility to American Indian and Alaska Native people, maintaining the federal government-to-government relationship with the federally recognized Indian tribes, and promoting and supporting tribal self-determination.  The bureau implements federal laws and policies and administers programs established for American Indians and Alaska Natives under the trust responsibility and the government-to-government relationship.

What is the BIA’s history?
The Continental Congress governed Indian affairs during the first years of the United States – in 1775 it established a Committee on Indian Affairs headed by Benjamin Franklin.  At the end of the eighteenth century, Congress transferred the responsibility for managing trade relations with the tribes to the Secretary of War by its act of August 20, 1789 (1 Stat. 54).  An Office of Indian Trade was established in the War Department by an act of April 21, 1806 (2 Stat. 402) specifically to handle this responsibility below the secretarial level.  It was later abolished by an act of May 6, 1822 (3 Stat. 679) which handed responsibility for all Indian matters back to the Secretary of War.

Secretary of War John C. Calhoun administratively established the BIA within the his department on March 11, 1824.  Congress later legislatively established the bureau and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs post via the act of July 9, 1832 (4 Stat. 564).  In 1849, the BIA was transferred to the newly created Interior Department.  In the years that followed, the Bureau was known variously as the Indian office, the Indian bureau, the Indian department, and the Indian service.  The name “Bureau of Indian Affairs” was formally adopted by the Interior Department on September 17, 1947.

Since 1824 there have been 45 Commissioners of Indian Affairs of which six have been American Indian or Alaska Native: Ely S. Parker, Seneca (1869-1871); Robert L. Bennett, Oneida (1966-1969); Louis R. Bruce,Mohawk-Oglala Sioux (1969-1973); Morris Thompson, Athabascan (1973-1976); Benjamin Reifel, Sioux(1976-1977); and William E. Hallett, Red Lake Chippewa (1979-1981).

For almost 200 years—beginning with treaty agreements negotiated by the United States and tribes in the late 18th and 19th centuries, through the General Allotment Act of 1887, which opened tribal lands west of the Mississippi to non-Indian settlers, the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 when American Indians and Alaska Natives were granted U.S. citizenship and the right to vote, the New Deal and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which established modern tribal governments, the World War II period of relocation and the post-War termination era of the 1950s, the activism of the 1960s and 1970s that saw the takeover of the BIA’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., to the passage of landmark legislation such as the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 and the Tribal Self-Governance Act of 1994, which have fundamentally changed how the BIA and the tribes conduct business with each other—the BIA has embodied the trust and government-to-government relationships between the U.S. and the tribal nations that bear the designation “federally recognized.”

What is the BIA's relationship today with American Indians and Alaska Natives?
The Bureau of Indian Affairs is a rarity among federal agencies. With roots reaching back to the the earliest days of the republic, the BIA is almost as old as the United States itself. For most of its existence, the BIA has mirrored the public's ambivalence towards the nation's indigenous people. But, as federal policy has evolved from seeking the subjugation of American Indians and Alaska Natives into one that respects tribal self-determination, so, too, has the BIA's mission evolved into one that is based on service to and partnership with the tribes.

The BIA Mission Statement, which is based on principles embodied in federal treaties, laws and policies, and in judicial decisions, clearly describes the bureau's relationship today with the American Indian and Alaska Native people:

"The BIA's mission is to enhance the quality of life, to promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. We will accomplish this through the delivery of quality services, maintaining government-to-government relationships within the spirit of self-determination."

How does the BIA carry out its mission?
Today, in keeping with their authorities and responsibilities under the Snyder Act of 1921 and other federal laws, regulations, and treaties, BIA employees across the country work with tribal governments in the administration of employment and job training assistance; law enforcement and justice; agricultural and economic development; tribal governance; and natural resources management programs to enhance the quality of life in tribal communities.  The following are just some examples of what we do:

  • We provide funding to and administer government program services for the federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native tribes located in 34 states, and through them to their approximately 1.9 million members.
  • We work with tribes in the administration of approximately 56 million acres of trust land, and the natural resources therein, for the use and benefit of the tribes and individual Indians.
  • We maintain five law enforcement district offices nationwide to provide police protection and investigative services for both Indian and non-Indians living in Indian Country.  We also directly operate or fund tribally operated law enforcement programs, courts, and detention facilities in tribal communities across the U.S.
  • We build and maintain thousands of miles of roads, as well as bridges, dams, and other physical infrastructure throughout Indian Country which benefit both Indians and non-Indians alike.
  • We work with other federal, tribal, state, and local emergency personnel in responses to wildland fires and other natural disasters.
  • We administer the Guaranteed Indian Loan Program to stimulate, increase, and sustain Indian entrepreneurship and business development in tribal communities.
  • We assist tribes in administering federal economic development and employment and training programs.
  • We administer BIA programs for tribes unable or who choose not to operate those programs.
  • We directly serve thousands of individual Indian trust beneficiaries by providing assistance in the probating of Indian trust estates, administering leases approved by the Secretary of the Interior, and performing other fiduciary duties.

Until 1955, the BIA’s responsibilities included providing health care services to American Indians and Alaska Natives.  That year, the function was legislatively transferred as the Indian Health Service to the U.S. Public Health Service within the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, known now as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), where it has remained to this day.

What is the Bureau of Indian Education?
The Bureau of Indian Education (BIE), formerly known as the Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP), is under the Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs.  It is responsible for the line direction and management of all BIE education functions, including the formation of policies and procedures, the supervision of all program activities, and the approval of the expenditure of funds appropriated for BIE education functions.

The BIE mission, which can be found in 25 C.F.R. Part 32.3, states that the BIE is to provide quality education opportunities from early childhood through life in accordance with the tribe’s needs for cultural and economic well-being in keeping with the wide diversity of Indian tribes and Alaska Native villages as distinct cultural and governmental entities.  The BIE also shall manifest consideration of the whole person by taking into account the spiritual, mental, physical, and cultural aspects of the person within his or her family and tribal or village context.

The BIE school system has 184 elementary and secondary schools and dormitories located on 63 reservations in 23 states, including seven off-reservation boarding schools and 122 schools directly controlled by tribes and tribal school boards under contracts or grants with the BIE.  The bureau also funds 66 residential programs for students at 52 boarding schools and at 14 dormitories housing those attending nearby tribal or public schools.  The school system employs approximately 5,000 teachers, administrators, and support personnel, while an estimated 6,600 work in tribal school systems.  In School Year 2006-07, the schools served almost 48,000 students.

In the area of postsecondary education, the BIE provides support to 24 tribal colleges and universities across the U.S. serving over 25,000 students, and directly operates two institutions of higher learning:  the Haskell Indian Nations University (HINU) in Lawrence, Kansas, and the Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  It also operates higher education scholarship programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

There have been three major legislative actions that restructured the Bureau of Indian Affairs with regard to education since the Snyder Act of 1921.  The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture in BIA schools, which contrasted with the federal policy at the time of acculturating and assimilating Indian people through the BIA boarding school system.  The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (P.L. 90-638) gave authority to the tribes to contract with the BIA for the operation of local schools and to determine education programs suitable for their children.  The Education Amendments Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-561) and further technical amendments (P.L. 98-511, 99-89, and 100-297) provided funds directly to tribal schools, empowered Indian school boards, permitted local hiring of teachers and staff, and established a direct line of authority between the OIEP Director and the Assistant Secretary – Indian Affairs.

In 2001, Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act (P.L. 107-110) to bring additional requirements of accountability and academic achievement for supplemental program funds provided by the U.S. Department of Education through the OIEP to the schools.  In 2006, the OIEP was formally elevated to bureau status by secretarial action and renamed the Bureau of Indian Education.

For additional information
To obtain contact information for the Federally recognized tribes, click on the “Tribal Leaders Directory” link.  For information about tracing American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry to any of the federally recognized tribes, click on the “Trace Indian Ancestry” link.  For information about the U.S. Indian Health Service, visit www.ihs.gov or call the IHS Public Affairs Office at (301) 443-3593.

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The Melan.In DAO acquires Pavonis Mauremhet LLC and Brooklynne LLC from its common owner-members with it's USD pegged, Melan.in DAO Master Tokens for 1,025,000 MELA on May 4, 2016

This Trade makes the former Owners of Pavonis Mauremhet LLC and Brooklynne LLC a majority stake going forward in Melan.In DAO Network operations with remaining stake being offered via upcoming Crowdsale.

Melan.In DAO has plans to further develop the digital based assets, existing contracts and commercial partnerships already in place at PMLLC and Brooklynne LLC and its numerous E-commerce Domains and Brands

Melan.In DAO will be providing the network with a consistent funding sources and value propositions and development solutions by token based voting and smart contract dApp deployments. As well as providing a decentralized and autonomous financial accounting transfer and distribution of returns to its members and its internal vendors, managers, miners and community users.

Melan.In DAO Network and the Members-Mgmt @ Brooklynne LLC and Pavonis Mauremhet LLC

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KatahbaCoin- Temple Council Registry for Katahba Iyeye Nation for XiAmarucans- Temple DAO #1

Katahba Coin is a hybrid anonymous membership identifier crypto-Token. They are allocated to the five founding Family Estates and their heirs, primarily through their will and declarations in accord with the UNDRIP Self Determined Human Right to Self Identity with the aboriginal and indigenous blood descendants and relatives of the Un-recognized by the Federal Democratic Governments of the Americas and Europe the Pre-Columbian described Copper-Colored Aboriginal Americans aka the Xi, Inca, Quiche, Guale, Geechi aka the Moorish Catholics fleeing Europe, Nantaughtacund, Yamasee, Gullah, Allabamu, Apalachee, Coosah, Catawba, Cree, Sheminole and LaNaMakota denationalized and displaced via fraud and corporate hypothication and debt securitization scams and unlawful trustee allocations of land and cultural treasures and principal rights to royalties, dividends and sovereign sol sanguin and sol juris rights to the past present and current land and resource based wealth of the Americas via branded title bondage documentation, taxation and planned color of law property confiscation from 1491- to present day in parts of Europe, North and South Amaruca aka America. Who are the Xi-Amarucans? The Xi-Amarucans are historically called the Olmec. We are the Oldest Indigenous Civilization in the Americas. We are the Pyramid and Moundbuilding Civilizations of North America. Xi means 'The People of the Tree'. The Tree was symbolic of the energetic life system of the Earth. It represents the Covenant between the Creator 'Halah' and The People 'Xi'. Amaru means serpent. The concept of the serpent in Indigenous culture is different than in the Bible -Christianity - Judaism. The Serpent represents the creative power of the Universe. It was called Kukulkan, Ququmatz, and later misnamed Quetzalcoatl by the invading Aztecs. Kukulkan or Quqamatz means the winged serpent. It represents our study of Cosmology and Astronomy and other sacred knowledge. Other Names We have been called are Allegewi (moundbuilders) from original Ajaw, a Xi word meaning King. In North America when the British came they misnamed us Powahtun. Our Aboriginal Antrhopologists have designated Powahtun as an Olmec Xi word from the original which is Pawahtuun, meaning 4 parts of the year. At the New Year we held a Pawahtuun Celebration. Pawahtuun (English Powahtun) was the ancestor of writing and calendars and the name means 4 parts (Pawah) of the year (Tuun). Europeans later renamed us based on another term we use for our Ajaw councils 'Nanti-Kuk' meaning 'Grand Council of Fire'. After the Xi fought the British in the first Anglo-Powahtuun war, Baron DeLaWar and his soldiers named some of us after him and the word DeLaWar was used for our ancestors who were captive and thus the use of Delaware. The Delaware, Powahtuun, and other Atlantic Tribes were all known as 'black tribes' of Aboriginals before the 1800s. We cover all of this history in detail in our book, 'The Lost Aboriginal Heritage of the so-called Negro-African-American: Resolving a Historical, Political, and Economic Identity Crisis by Chief Amaru Namaa Taga Xi-Ali Muhammad I Did not know 'Black Americans' were Indigenous to America. Where is the Proof? The Proof is in the historical documents, eye witness reports, mural epigraphy depicting the phenotypes of Olmecs-Mayans, genetics, census data, and oral traditons. Get this book to Understand the heritage The Lost Aboriginal Heritage of the so-called Negro-African-American: Resolving a Historical, Political, & Economic Identity Crisis What About the African Slave Trade. How do We know where our Ancestors in Africa Came from? The history left in the Treaty documents, records of the chroniclers of history of West African poltical States and the records of the Christian Political Inquisition of European States proves beyond reasoable doubt that Europeans specifically the Dutch, British, French, Portugeuse, and Spanish allied with the African Kingdoms of Whydah, the Oyo Kingdom, Kingdom of Dahomey and other African Kingdoms to unlawfully enslave our peoples who were predominantly Moors (Indigenous Muslims of Africa). Specifically Great Britain and later the United States who were at war with our historical political Jurisdictions entered many international agreements to end the wars. So-called slavery between the parties was ended by treaty (1754 & 1786) yet the Europeans and newly formed White Americans unlawfully and in violation of International agreements politically annihilated our ancestors and renamed them negros. The Negros are now called African-Americans. They are the descendants of the oldest Aboriginal Americans and the Moors of West Africa. Our plebiscite is designed to legally resolve these historical issues of genocide and denationalization through a fully operational Indigenous Government for Aboriginal Americans of Moorish descent. How do Indigenous Nationals of the Aboriginal Republic function in the United States daily in regards to banking, driving, employment, business transactions etc... As Indigenous peoples apart of an Indigenous Government We the Nationals of the Aboriginal Republic of North America have our own passports, passport cards, Indigenous employment identifications, Indienous Tax Exempt Identifications, domestic licenses and International licences. We have the ability to open bank accounts and contract as Natives of this land just like any other Nationals and Citizens of the United States of America. We have communicated our plebiscite to the United States Secretary of State and recieved recognizance of our operations and have the supporting records. We are in full agreement with UN resolution 60-147-Right to Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. and all other mandates protecting our right to a nationality and specifically Rights as Indigenous peoples institutions and Governments. We are also on an international campaign to make the implement all United Nations mandates and resolutions protecting Indigenous Peoples and governments. The Aboriginal Republic of North America offers the International Indigenous Society as a template for a United Nations for Indigenous Peoples. The KATA Coin Token will provide heritage based membership registration and family based inheritance and intra-community transfers and are set-up to be fully decentralized giving individuals complete and anonymous control.

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Names

Catawba means "river people," and only came into common use in the Carolinas after 1715. The name used by themselves was Iyeye (people) or Nieye(real people). Early Spanish records refer to them as the Iswa (also spelled: Esaw, Isaw, Issa, and Ysa). 17th century Virginia colonists used a variation of this: Usheree(or Ushery, Usi). Also called: Anitagua (Cherokee), Cuttawa, Flathead, Oyadagahroene (Iroquois), Tadirighrone (Iroquois), and Tetes-Plattes (French).

Language

Siouan. Catawba is the most aberrant of all known Siouan languages. Its only close relationship is to Woccon. In fact, Catawba is so different that scholars did not recognize its relationship to the Siouan language family until the late 1800s.

Sub-Tribes

Originally composed of two separate tribes that merged as the Catawba: Catawba proper and Iswa. By 1760 the Catawba are believed to have absorbed parts of at least 20 other Siouan-speaking tribes in the region. Originally there were many villages, but few names have survived. In 1728 there were six villages, all on the Catawba River, the most northerly of which was Nauvasa. In 1781 Newton and Turkey Head were the main settlements, also on Catawba River.

The original homeland of the Catawba before contact is uncertain. De Soto's expedition apparently went directly through 

their homeland in 1540 but did not mention a name that can be attached to them with any certainty. Pardo met the Ysa (or Iswa) during 1566-67 but says nothing about the Catawba. Archeological evidence indicates that the Siouan-speaking tribes lived in the Carolinas for many years before contact, and the Catawba were probably a part of this. On the other hand, there is one tradition that they originally came from the north, (perhaps the upper Ohio Valley but even Canada has been suggested), and were driven south by the Seneca at the beginning of the Beaver Wars. By this theory, they are supposed to have arrived in the Carolinas about 1650. Their unique language and enduring hostility with the Iroquois tends to support this, but Catawba cultural traits, most notably head flattening of male infants, argues for a long-time residence south of the Ohio. In any event, the Catawba were definitely established along the Catawba River at the North/South Carolina border in 1650.

They lived in villages of circular, bark-covered houses, and dedicated temple structures were used for public gatherings and religious ceremonies. Agriculture, for which men and women both shared responsibility, provided at least two crops each year and was heavily supplemented by hunting and fishing. The Iroquois called the Catawba "flatheads" because they, as well as many of the other Siouan-speaking tribes of the area, practiced forehead flattening of males infants. Besides the Iroquois, traditional Catawba enemies included the Cherokee, Shawnee, Delaware, and several members of the Great Lakes Algonquin allied with the French. Catawba warriors had a fearsome reputation and an appearance to match: ponytail hairstyle with a distinctive war paint pattern of one eye in a black circle, the other in a white circle and remainder of the face painted black. Coupled with their flattened foreheads, some of their enemies must have died from sheer fright.

A proud people and dangerous enemy, the Catawba immediately attached themselves to the interests of the English colonists after the beginning of settlement in the Carolinas during the 1660s. Their loyalty wavered only briefly during 1715. Otherwise, they fought other Native Americans for the British and protected the Carolina colonies from encroachment by the French and Spanish. They also helped the colonists find runaway slaves when required. It was a common practice in South Carolina to force new slaves to pass in front of a Catawba warrior in warpaint to discourage escape attempts. To a limited extent, their service was appreciated. It is difficult to think of another Native American group for which South Carolina tried to establish a reservation so they could stay. By 1720 the Catawba had started to adopt many of the ways of English colonists but were losing their own culture in the process. For the most part, they remained very traditional about religion until 1883. Within a year Mormon missionaries were able to convert almost all of them. Presently, most of the Catawba belong to the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints.

History

Although the area was visited by De Soto in 1540. Pardo's expedition during 1566-67 was the first to mention the Iswa, a branch of what would later become known as the Catawba. Contact by British colonists from Virginia with the Ushery was made in 1653. Hostility with the neighboring Cherokee existing from a period before the Europeans. When the a large number of refugee Shawnee arrived in South Carolina after fleeing the Iroquois during 1660, the Cherokee gave them permission to settle as a buffer between them and the Catawba. The Catawba and Shawnee (or Savannah) were soon at war each other. At almost the same time, the Yuchi entered the area from the Cumberland basin, and the Catawba also fought with them.

Worse yet, the Iroquois had not forgotten the Shawnee. Seneca war parties, sometimes accompanied by Delaware allies, followed the "Warriors Path" from western New York travelling down the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania and then into the foothills of the Appalachians to South Carolina. Iroquois raids against the Shawnee frequently struck the Catawba and other neighboring tribes instead. The fighting was not localized, and Iroquois warriors were often forced into a hasty retreat with angry Catawba warriors in hot pursuit all the way to Pennsylvania. The Seneca did not always win the race. With the sudden influx of so many new native enemies, the Catawba turned to the British. They found what they were looking for ...firearms. The colonists also found what they were looking for ...an ally.

Warfare between the Iroquois and Catawba continued with very few interruptions for almost 100 years. Since both tribes were British allies, the British wanted an end to it. The Iroquois, however, saw things differently. They were allies of New York. Whether this automatically made them allies with Virginia, the Carolinas, or their native allies was a different matter. With British encouragement, the Catawba arranged a peace with the Iroquois in 1706. This achievement was only temporary. The League was in its imperial phase by this time and determined to dominate other tribes through treaty and the covenant chain. The Catawba still hated the Iroquois and were too stubborn and proud to submit. Eventually, the peace collapsed, and Seneca raids resumed. Against the Yuchi and Shawnee the Catawba were more successful. Well-armed, the Catawba kept the Yuchi at bay and eventually drove them southwest into the arms of the Creek Confederation. A Catawba victory over the Shawnee in 1707 forced most Carolina Shawnee north to Pennsylvania where they found a refuge among the Delaware and Iroquois (strange as it seems). The remaining Savannah retreated west to the protection of the Creek. Meanwhile, while the Catawba were defending themselves from the Iroquois and Shawnee, they rendered service to the British against the new French presence on the Gulf of Mexico. In 1703 Catawba warriors attacked the French outpost at Mobile Bay. Five years later, they joined the Cherokee and Alibamu in fighting the Mobile, the primary French trade middleman in the area. However, these efforts did not go unnoticed by the French, and shortly afterwards, the Catawba began receiving regular visits by war parties from French allies near Detroit. By 1711 the Iroquian-speaking Tuscarora had endured so much abuse from the North Carolina colonists that there was a general uprising. Joined by other tribes, the Tuscarora War (1711-13) expanded beyond North Carolina's resources, and they called on South Carolina for assistance.

While the Iroquois threatened and Virginia procrastinated, South Carolina sent a force of 30 militia with 500 Catawba and Yamasee. They entered North Carolina and defeated the Tuscarora in two battles during 1712. After a truce, the South Carolina army prepared to return home, but problems arose when North Carolina refused to pay for their expenses. The South Carolina solution was to capture several hundred Tuscarora and sell them as slaves. For obvious reasons, the truce ended right there. The following year the South Carolinians returned, this time with more than 1,000 Catawba and Yamasee, and the Tuscarora were quickly crushed by the onslaught. Many prisoners were tortured to death, while another 400 were sold into slavery. During 1714 the Tuscarora left enmass for the Oneida in New York and by 1722 had become the sixth member of the Iroquois League. They never forgot the part the Catawba had played in their defeat, and the Iroquois had another good reason to punish the Flatheads.

After the Tuscarora had left, the Catawba and Yamasee found they were subject to the same abuse that forced the Tuscarora to fight. British traders routinely seized the wives and children of Catawba warriors and sold them as slaves to pay for debts (usually whiskey). For this reason, the Catawba joined the general uprising of 1715 in the Carolinas (Yamasee War). Several British forts fell at first, but the colonists brutally repressed the revolt. The survivors were forced to make peace during 1717, but so many small Carolina tribes disappeared completely in this conflict, they will not be listed(See Southeastern Siouan). The Catawba, however were not one of these. They absorbed many of the refugees and, perhaps because of past service and legitimate grievances, were soon back in the good graces of South Carolina.

Despite their incorporation of other tribes, the Catawba population was in a precipitous decline. Only 1,400 were left in 1728 after 70 years of warfare, whiskey and disease. A terrible blow came in 1738 when a severe smallpox epidemic killed over half of them. A peace concluded with the Ohio Wyandot (French allies) in 1733 brought some relief, but despite all attempts by the British government and protests by southern governors, the protracted war with the Iroquois League continued until 1752. By this time the Catawba could only field 120 warriors from a population of 700. The Catawba had escaped Iroquois domination but had paid dearly. Peace with the Iroquois was reconfirmed at Albany in 1759, but the Shawnee remained a dangerous enemy.

The Catawba were used as scouts by the British army during the first years of the French and Indian War (1755-63), but a second smallpox epidemic (1759-60) once again took half of them leaving the survivors demoralized. With only 60 warriors left, the Catawba served as scouts against their old enemies during the Cherokee War (1760-61), but this was their last important contribution. During 1758 they had abandoned their last towns in North Carolina and now lived entirely within South Carolina. Through the treaty of Pine Hill (1760) and Augusta (1763), a fifteen mile square reservation was established for them along the Catawba River near the North/South Carolina border, but the murder of the last important Catawba chief Haiglar(or Hagler) by a Shawnee war party during 1763 is generally regarded as the end of Catawba power.

From the beginning, the Catawba reservation suffered from encroachment by white colonists. Between 1761 and 1765, many simply ignored the boundaries and moved in. A Catawba protest to South Carolina in 1763 was answered with a promise to evict the trespassers, but nothing was ever done. Despite this the Catawba supported the American cause during the Revolution serving as scouts. When a British army invaded South Carolina, the Catawba withdrew north into Virginia but returned after the Battle of Guilford Court House (1781). With the South Carolina government unwilling to move against its white citizens, the Catawba land base continued to shrink. By 1826 virtually all of the reservation had been either sold or leased to whites. Crammed into the last square mile, 110 Catawba lived in poverty.

In 1840 the Catawba sold their land to South Carolina at the Treaty of Indian Ford. This was a state, not federal, treaty and probably was a violation of the Nonintercourse Act. The Catawba moved north across the border, but North Carolina refused to provide land for them, so many were forced to return. Despite past differences, the North Carolina Cherokee generously invited the Catawba to join them. Many did, but this did not last. By 1847 most of the Catawba had left the Cherokee and returned to South Carolina. All that remained for them Catawba was 600 acres of their old reservation, and obviously this could not support them. The possibility of moving to the Choctaw section of Oklahoma was explored but ultimately rejected A second attempt to relocate the Catawba west to the Choctaw in Oklahoma also failed during 1853. Still residents of South Carolina, Catawba soldiers fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War, but the census of 1910 could only locate 124 Catawba. Although recognized by South Carolina, the Catawba did not receive federal recognition until 1941. In 1959 they petitioned Congress to terminate their tribal status, and tribal landholdings were distributed among the membership during 1962. The final tribal role call of that year gave a population of a little over 600. After termination, many Catawba emigrated to the Choctaw in southeast Oklahoma. After a change of heart in 1973, the Catawba tribal council was reorganized and recognized by the state of South Carolina. During 1994, the Catawba regained federal recognition after a lengthy court battle.

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Catawba Indian Nation

The Catawba — also known as Issa or Essa or Iswä but most commonly Iswa (Catawba: iswa - “people of the river”) — are afederally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeast United States, along the border of North Carolina near the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina. The Catawba were once considered one of the most powerful Southeastern Siouan-speaking tribes in the Carolina Piedmont. The Catawba and other Siouan peoples are believed to have coalesced as individual tribes in the Southeast. Living along the Catawba River they were named one of the most powerful tribes in the south.

King Hagler or Nopkehee (ca. 1700–1763) was a chief or King of the Catawba Native American tribe from 1754 to 1763. He was the first Native American to be inducted into theSouth Carolina Hall of Fame.[1]

He was chief after King Yanabe Yalangway who was murdered by a group of Iroquois Natives in 1750. He is known as the "Patron Saint of Camden" On August 29, 1754 he delivered a speech in Catawba: "As to our Liveing on those Lands we Expect to live on those Lands we now possess During our Time here for when the Great man above made us he also made this Island he also made our forefathers and of this Colour and Hue (Showing his hands & Breast) he also fixed our forefathers and us here and to Inherit this Land and Ever since we Lived after our manner and fashion..."[2]

King Haiglar hunted with his bow and arrow and rifle. It may be that he attended Indian school, because King Whitmannetaugheehee agreed that eleven Catawba boys should attend Indian School in Virginia.

On August 30, 1763 he was killed by a band of Shawnees.[1]

The King is also known by a multitude of other names, mainly other spellings, such as Haigler, Haiglar, King Haigler, Nopkehe, Arataswa and Oroloswa.

Primarily involved in agriculture, the Catawba were friendly toward early European colonists. They were at almost constant war with tribes of other major language families: the Iroquois, who ranged south from the Great Lakes area and New York; the Algonquian Shawnee and Lenape (Delaware); and the Iroquoian Cherokee, who fought for control over the large Ohio Valley (including what is now in present-day West Virginia).[2] The Catawba allied during the American Revolutionary War with the Patriot colonists against the British. Decimated by earlier smallpox epidemics, tribal warfare and social disruption, the Catawba declined markedly in number in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The people ceded their homeland to South Carolina in 1840 by a treaty; it was not approved by the United States Senate and was automatically invalid.

Terminated as a tribe by the federal government in 1959, the Catawba Indian Nation reorganized to reassert its government. In 1973 began its struggle to gain federal recognition. It accomplished this in 1993, along with a $50 million settlement by the federal government and state of South Carolina of its longstanding land claims. It was also officially recognized by the state of North Carolina in 1993. Its headquarters is at Rock Hill, South Carolina.

As of 2006, the population of the Catawba Nation has increased to about 2600, most in South Carolina, with smaller groups in OklahomaColorado, and elsewhere. The Catawba Reservation (34°54′17″N 80°53′01″W), located in two disjoint sections in York County, South Carolina east of Rock Hill, reported a 2010 census population of 841 inhabitants. The Catawban language, which is being revived, is part of the Siouan family (Catawban branch).[3]

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AttechCo programming courses for kids are in alignment with several important Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as well as Common Core Standards for all grade levels.  See a summarized list of key standards included in the curricula below.

KEY NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS & COMMON CORE STANDARDS

Asking questions and defining problems

Ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships.

Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

Developing and Using Models

In engineering, models may be used to analyze a system to see where or under what conditions flaws might develop, or to test possible solutions to a problem. Models can also be used to visualize and refine a design, to communicate a design’s features to others, and as prototypes for testing design performance

10 Core Components of Each Lesson

Pre & Post Tests: Validate comprehension of course objectives

Exposure to Innovative Technologist of Color: Developing a perspective which promotes diversity in technology

Tech Boy Genius Crew: Young technologists who encourage and inspire continued learning in each lesson

Technology Innovations: Inspiring insight into how technology is changing our world

Advanced Computer Science Topics: Presenting the fundamentals of Computer, Electrical, and Software Engineering

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Tech Entrepreneurship: Fostering an entrepreneurial spirit related to tech

Certificate of Achievement: Rewarding the quest for tech knowledge and completion of each course

Tech News: Keeping children up to date with the latest developments in technology

Course alignment with Common Core & Next Generation Science Standards:Developing numerous skills to help in virtually every area of educational development

Fun, Interesting & Engaging Activities:  Lessons are filled with games, puzzles, and animated characters that make learning entertaining! Signup Now

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Treaty of Universal Community Trust

Treaty of Universal Community Trust

TREATY – a written agreement between two or more sovereign nations or states.
OF – used as a function word to indicate origin or derivation.
UNIVERSAL – that which exists in and of the material Universe.
COMMUNITY – a group of sentient beings living together in common unity.
TRUST – the faithful reliance upon that which we do not control.

[For the avoidance of doubt; the terms Mankind, Men and Man include both male and female genders of our species of being, whether used in singular or plural from, unless otherwise specified.]

http://youtu.be/-kYzDftJHMk

Proclamation Of Independence, Sovereignty & Jurisdiction

Let it be known by all concerned, affected and interested parties that the independence and sovereignty of the Communities of Indigenous Free Peoples who ratify this treaty is hereby proclaimed, declared and affirmed without equivocation, and is vested solely in the men and women of those communities, both individually and collectively, notwithstanding the fact that their representatives may be authorised by each to act in a sovereign capacity on their collective behalf in strictly limited sets of circumstances, such as those Mankind currently finds itself in, for the purposes of achieving the inter-community consensus required to establish a supreme jurisdiction under the guiding principles of Natural Law, supplemented and interpreted in this TREATY OF UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST, with a view to peacefully bringing about the following aims and objectives:

  1. An end to all crimes against Mankind and the Earth that are currently being perpetrated by governments, whether elected or not, corporations, organisations, individuals and legal entities of all natures and descriptions.
  2. The dismantling of all industries which, by developing, manufacturing and exploiting for profit any substance, product or by-product, cause actual damage, harm, injury or loss to Mankind and/or damage to the Earth.
  3. The deconstruction of unsustainable fiscal systems that would facilitate one man to have and one man to have not, including [without limitation] the abolition of usury in all it’s forms and the de-monopolisation of land rights, inter-national borders, mediums of exchange, trading platforms and the means of communicating, publishing and distributing information.
  4. The nullifying, settlement and/or discharge of all outstanding or allegedly owed debts, obligations and liabilities, with a view to replacing unaccountable, unsustainable and inequitable usury-based financial systems with localised and autonomous Permanent Credit Facilities or depositories, in every community that stands under the jurisdiction of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST.
  5. The eradication of all forms of artificial scarcity and its effects, including homelessness, famine and disease, by and through the facilitation of a naturally abundant, peaceful, free and harmonious environment for Mankind to dwell and the distribution of organic materials, agricultural produce, seeds and proven natural health remedies.
  6. The dissolution of Mankind’s dependence upon fossil fuel industries for the production of energy, including [without limitation] coal seam gas mining, coal fired power stations and oil drilling, as well as the cessation of all toxic pollution of the biosphere of the Earth in any detrimental form whatsoever, whether it be gaseous, liquid, solid or radioactive, and the closure and clean-up of all unsafe nuclear power facilities.
  7. The rapid development, manufacture, distribution and implementation of new and existing free and clean energy technologies in every community upon the Earth under UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST.
  8. A cease-fire in all wars, the repatriation of all armed services personnel, following the repudiation of all unlawful allegiances and the setting aside of all oaths made in the service of private interests to the detriment of Mankind, and the unequivocal commitment of the parties to this Treaty to recall and withdraw any and all beneficiaries of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST from every armed conflict at the earliest opportunity.
  9. The establishment of Co-operative Trade Networks in and between all communities, with a view to promoting the localisation of trade, self-sufficiency, mutual co-operation and the eventual replacement of money with Unconditional Pledges of Sweat Equity, which shall form the basis for the permanent credit of every beneficiary of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST.
  10. An agreement that privately issued Promissory Notes made payable to bearer on demand by any grantor, trustee or beneficiary of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST may be used for the purposes of settling any valid financial obligation or to create credits in their account held at the community’s depository, the balance of which will be transferable to any account in another jurisdiction, provided those credits are not used for any purpose that is detrimental to Mankind and/or the Earth.
  11. The nullifying of any and all judicial proceedings and convictions for victimless crimes, as well as the positive law which legalised such unlawful proceedings, and the prohibition and prevention of any Man being charged with future crimes.
  12. The facilitation of the re-emergence of the Universal Bond of Common Unity between the free indigenous peoples of the Earth, in order to achieve these aims and objectives in the most peaceful, amicable and equitable manners.

Repudiation Of Presumed Jurisdictions & Authorities

Having agreed that the presumption of the authority to act upon the people or any nation or community must necessarily be derived from their consent to be regulated by the rules governing any lawfully established jurisdiction; it is observable that almost every community of people on the Earth currently lives under a system which does not meet their needs, the controllers of which are able to use coercion and manipulation under threat of force, violence and/or incarceration in order to gain acquiescence to their positive laws, to which most of the people who populate the Earth have not given their free and unambiguous consent, as is the well established principle of lawful governance.

In other words, the current system is a globally imposed hegemony of private, vested interests, the service of which has been detrimental to the beautiful and naturally bountiful Earth, as well as systematically deconstructing the Universal Bond of Common Unity between its peoples, without which freedom, peace, abundance and mutually beneficial co-operation between nations cannot exist.

It is therefore declared without division that the indigenous nations standing under UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST have denied or revoked their citizenship and their consent to be governed under the laws of any other jurisdiction, whilst every jurisdictional claim by any purported ruling authority is repudiated by the execution of this Treaty, for and on behalf of every member of every nation party to it.

Henceforth: all disputes and/or complaints lodged by or against any grantor, trustee or beneficiary of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST will be settled or heard in arbitration proceedings or before a jury of thirteen of their peers, unless otherwise unambiguously agreed between the parties concerned and subject to the provisions of this Treaty regarding the formations of Supreme Grand Juries and any duly ratified amendments.

Amendments To This Treaty

Amendments may be proposed by the formal, written proposal of any Trustee of a Sovereign Community Trust, for and on behalf of any of its beneficiaries, which shall be presented for consideration at a convention of the Founding Trustees of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST.

Every proposal for an amendment that has the unanimous support of the nations who ratify this Treaty will be brought into force and effect by its inclusion in this instrument, as if the amendment was set forth in the original Treaty, provided that it is duly ratified under the seal of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST, whether at a convention or otherwise.

IN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF THE ANCIENT USAGES, RIGHTS & CUSTOMS OF THE FREE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE EARTH, THE PARTIES TO THIS TREATY AGREE AS FOLLOWS:

There are three foundations of every community: common unity, peaceful possession and equity for all.

There are three foundations of equity: protection, correction and natural justice.

There are three protections and securities for every member of the community: of life and the body, of the place we make a home, and of our natural rights.

There are three things which promote common unity: empathy, respect and unconditional love for our fellow Man.

There are three things which strengthen common unity: effective protection and security for every Man and his property, just correction wherever it is required and forgiveness derived from a equitable cause.

There are three things that destroy common unity: cruel and unjust punishments; forgiveness derived from blind respect and partiality; and false judgment, where no Man can obtain natural protection.

There are three pillars of every community: sovereignty, of the individual and the nation, the voice of the people and equitable resolutions of disputes and complaints.

There are three things which ought to belong to each of these three pillars: equity to all, protection and defence to all and open source information for the instruction, knowledge and records of all.

There are three elements of equitable resolutions: right knowledge, natural right and conscientious rectitude.

There are three energies of equitable resolutions: a learned arbitrator or jury, a faithful witness and a conscientious verdict.

There are three mandatory qualifications of every jury or arbitrator of a dispute or complaint: a full and complete knowledge of the facts of the matter, the customs of the community and the tendencies and consequences of the times.

There are three things which every arbitrator should constantly study: natural truth, conscientious forgiveness and the energetic dictates of knowledge.

There are three indispensabilities of every community: the sovereignty of the self-governed, the voice of the people being heard without prejudice and the consistent and unbiased administration of equity.

There are three universally binding actions that should require the verdict of a Supreme Grand Jury of 13 Sovereign Representatives to effect in any nation: the deposition of a de facto government or acting sovereign paramount; the banishment of criminal religious institutions and monarchies and the equitable reclamation of the lands, resources and properties unlawfully held by such parties; and the suspension or repudiation of laws and instruments that do not benefit Mankind and/or cause damage to the Earth.

There are three unalienable birthrights: the right to peaceful possession of a parcel of land, fit for the purposes of building a home, growing food and raising a family, with unrestricted access to clean, unpolluted water, as well as the minerals below and the airspace above it; the right to use all necessary and reasonable defences to protect the body, family and property from theft, fraud, damage, harm and loss; and the right of self-determination under Natural Law.

There are three guarantees of every community which has the voluntary consent of its sovereign people: security for life and limb; security for property held in peaceful possession without malfeasance, theft or fraud; and security of the right to self-determination.

There are three things the safety of which depends on that of the others: the sovereignty of the people; the integrity and fairness of a nation’s domestic and foreign policies; and the consistent and unbiased administration of equity.

There are three things free to everybody upon the Earth, the refusal of which no law can justify: food from an abundant field, forest or orchard, water from spring, river, tap or well – for any individual or family in dire need of sustenance; firing from a decayed tree or fence; and peaceful possession of a dwelling or land not in fair use or proven to be rightfully held following due public notice of a claim by a landless or homeless individual or family or community.

There are three thieves who should not suffer proceedings against them: any individual compelled under the force of another; any child under 16 years; and anybody who is suffering from any form of generally accepted mental illness, incapacity or disease.

There are three rightful applications of equity: prevention of actual suffering, harm, injury, damage and loss; compensation and/or restitution for all injured parties; and assurance of equitable resolutions, peaceful civil proceedings and the reconciliation of the accused with their accusers.

There are three sacred conventions of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST: a convention of families assembled for the purposes of founding a community; a convention of arbitrators for the purpose of administering equity; and a convention of Sovereign Community Trusts assembled for the purposes of establishing independence, accession and jurisdiction.

It is self-evident that freedom cannot co-exist with inequality of rights and restrictions, taxation of labour or sweat equity and the restriction of our freedom to come and go as we please.

Any Sovereign Nation of Free Indigenous People is necessarily ruined by inordinate privileges for the few, corruption of justice and a general national apathy to injustices, which have become prevalent in all so-called ‘modern’ societies.

Long-lasting peace under Natural Law cannot be established without an end to all wars between nations, the de-monopolisation of land rights and natural resources and the repudiation of the laws that were made by Mankind to its own detriment and that of the Earth.

Let it be known by all that no law can unman a Man, or uncall a calling.

WHEREFORE, IN THE INDOMITABLE SPIRIT OF ALTRUISM, UNITED BY OUR SIMILARITIES, AS WELL AS OUR INDIVIDUAL UNIQUENESSES, WE HEREBY STAND IN COMMON UNITY TO AFFIRM THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES AS THE FOUNDATIONS OF UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST:

  1. Natural Law, also known as the Laws of Nature, is that which the Universal Causation of All That Is, God, the Supreme Being, the Universe or howsoever described according to subjective preference or faith, has prescribed to all Mankind, not by any formal promulgation, but by the internal guidance of reason with heart-felt resonance alone.
  2. Natural Law forms the permanent and underlying basis of all law and theories of Natural Law have been an integral part of jurisprudence throughout the history of man-made laws.
  3. We must therefore distinguish between Natural Law and positive law, which is the body of law created by Mankind.
  4. Natural Law is always superior to positive law.
  5. The principals of Natural Law derive from Universal or Divine Law, otherwise known as the Laws of Nature.
  6. Natural Law dictates that Man must be allowed to exercise his own Freewill, but not without bearing responsibility for his actions.
  7. Common Law is that which derives its force and authority from the consent and immemorial practice of the people within any community; it has never received the sanction of the legislature by an express act, which is the criterion by which it is to be distinguished from statute law, which is inferior in every respect to Common Law.
  8. In accord with the Laws of Nature, Common Law dictates that all Men are free to do what they choose for themselves, provided they do not infringe the unalienable rights of another to do the same.

UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST is hereby established as the Supreme Jurisdiction in the nations which ratify the terms of this Treaty, having united by mutual consent and in common unity, in order to deliberate, determine and act jointly for the purposes of the restoration of Natural Law upon the Earth, as well as bringing about an end to all wars, genocide, debt-slavery, usury, famine, poverty, pollution and preventable disease.

  1. No individual or legal entity is above Natural Law, and Equity, meaning natural justice, is paramount and mandatory under UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST, in that no law, statute or principle can be upheld at the expense of a just, fair and reasonable outcome.
  2. In positive law, a ‘sovereign’ is one who governs themselves independently of any foreign control, in the union and exercise of all lawful powers possessed and exercised by a sovereign head of state and/or government. In Natural Law, a sovereign is a Man who exercises his unalienable right to self-govern. Under UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST, all grantors, trustees and beneficiaries are therefore considered sovereigns of equal status, each of whom acts in a sovereign capacity at all times.
  3. ‘Government’ is the manner in which sovereignty is exercised in each sovereign state or nation, and ‘democracy’ is that form of government in which the sovereign power is exercised by the people in a body politic; ‘democratic government’ is the body politic which purportedly exercises the sovereign power of the people who elected it, notwithstanding the opposition of a majority of those subjected to its jurisdiction against their will. Self-government and democratic government are therefore mutually exclusive and cannot co-exist in any nation.
  4. The purported right to enforce democratic, autocratic or despotic government policy by coercive and/or deceptive methods is always, and without exception, a breach of Natural Law and therefore void ab initio, even when such methods of enforcement are permitted or prescribed under statutes and/or the orders of unlawful and/or de facto courts and/or governments.
  5. In the absence of the voluntary and unambiguous consent of the self-governed, representative government or administration cannot rightfully exist.
  6. Pursuant to the principles of Natural Law, Man has the unalienable right to self-determination and self-governance, and can therefore, at any time, choose to revoke his citizenship or deny his consent to be governed by or subjected to any administration or entity or individual, but shall always, in any event, be responsible for his actions under the guiding principles of Natural Law.
  7. Any Man who does revoke or deny his consent to be governed by or as a citizen of any purported authority is free from government control and any perceived statutory obligations, restrictions and restraints imposed by the state that he was formerly or supposedly governed by.
  8. Any and all agreements purportedly made for and on behalf of the indigenous peoples of the Earth, do not in any way bind those who have revoked or denied their consent to be governed by them, nor do any of those agreements preclude the unalienable rights of the indigenous peoples to self-determination and self-governance, as is recognised under the established conventions of inter-national law.
  9. Living freely in peace is within any community’s equitable standards and does not create any harm, loss, injury, damage or liability, or comprise a breach of the peace in any way whatsoever, whereas, violence, which only ever begets more violence, has been monopolised by successive unaccountable and/or purportedly democratic governments, long-since dominated by private interests, resulting in persistent, continuing and increasing actions that work to the detriment of Mankind and the Earth.

Declaration Of Unalienable Rights

THEREFORE, IN AFFIRMATION OF OUR BIRTHRIGHTS, AND WITH A VIEW TO PREVENTING FURTHER CRIMES AGAINST MANKIND AND THE EARTH, IT IS DECLARED THAT WE ARE ALL UNALIENABLY ENDOWED WITH:

  1. The right to live freely in peace without encumbrances of all natures and descriptions and to deny or revoke our consent to be governed, regulated or coerced in any manner whatsoever.
  2. The right to hold, use and enjoy any and all property in our peaceful possession, without having to pay for the use or enjoyment of it.
  3. The rights to a parcel of permanent land in the region of our birth, including water, mineral and air use, to live upon and within, for the purposes of making a home, raising children, growing food and self-realisation, which shall be held, free and clear, in perpetual private trust for the benefit of the next generation. [Such rights may be exchanged for similar rights to land in other parts of the Earth, in accordance with the agreement of the parties.]
  4. The right to use all necessary and reasonable defences to protect ourselves, our kin and our interests, including the appointment and authorisation of Defenders of the Peace in any community, in the event of any and all circumstances.
  5. The right to refuse to supply or to initiate the recall of an intimate or non-intimate DNA sample for any purpose whatsoever.
  6. The right to refuse to supply or to initiate the recall of samples of our bodily fluids, skin, hair, bones, organs or tissues, in the event of any and all circumstances.
  7. The right to refuse to be medicated by any individual, government, corporation, organisation or legal entity, under any circumstances whatsoever, as well as the right to medicate ourselves as we see fit.
  8. The right to cultivate, harvest, store, trade, barter and/or use for our own purposes, any and all organic substances which will grow or form naturally upon the Earth.
  9. The right to refuse to be bound by the unlawful judgments, orders, warrants, directives and/or rulings of the de facto courts of any entity, party or individual claiming jurisdiction over us.
  10. The right to Sovereign & Class 1 Diplomatic Privileges, including (without limitation) the right to use a Diplomatic Passport or Port Pass, Diplomatic Premises and Diplomatic modes of Transport, as well as immunity from legal obligations that we have not expressly consented to in any foreign jurisdiction.
  11. The right of Superior Guardianship over our offspring from the date of conception, which shall be presumed to be held jointly with the other biological parent or guardian, until proven otherwise under oath or affirmation, without limitation and strictly precluding civil regulations of any kind, under any circumstances whatsoever.
  12. The right to hold exclusive Powers of Attorney over the physical bodies and possessions of our offspring, which shall be considered to be held jointly in private trust with their other biological parent or guardian until proven otherwise, without limitation and until the sixteenth anniversary of their physical birth.
  13. The right to educate our children at home or in any way we deem to be beneficial for their physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual development, without limitation, supervision, intervention, inspection or interference of any and all natures and descriptions.
  14. The rights of full Freedom and Intercourse of Trade and Navigation, to and from any port or place on the Earth, including (without limitation) the rights to cross international borders and to return to the land of our physical birth at our sole discretion and without interference, taxation or undue delays of any and all natures and descriptions.
  15. The right to make, deposit and benefit from our own currency or medium of exchange without charges, taxes or interest, until such time that Mankind frees itself from its psychological dependence upon the abstract concept of money as a means of denoting the value and progress of our very existence.
  16. The right to expect no detainment, supervision or arrest without a sealed writ issued by a rightful authority alleging breaches of Natural Law, the right to be presumed innocent of allegations until proven otherwise before a jury of our peers and the protection of the community wherever we may roam.
  17. The rights to life, health, well-being, privacy and silence.
  18. The right to free assembly, expression, thoughts of any and all natures and descriptions and the right to determine our own spiritual or religious and/or non-religious path.

In the most simplistic of terms, let all Men in all nations under UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST be self-governed by the divine maxim:

My rights end where yours begin.

This Treaty was opened for ratification on the 62nd day of 313th year of Dwapara (Ascending) [on the Nolstice (northern summer solstice) in the year 13513 UCC / on 21 June 2012 CE] and has thus far been duly ratified by twenty five independent sovereign nations of indigenous peoples, with several others having expressed the intent to do so at the earliest opportunity, thereby establishing the supreme jurisdiction of UNIVERSAL COMMUNITY TRUST upon the Earth, under the guiding principles of Natural Law.

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